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Enhancing Lignites Future Through Research & Development Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President, R&D Lignite Energy Council Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President,

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Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Lignites Future Through Research & Development Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President, R&D Lignite Energy Council Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancing Lignites Future Through Research & Development Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President, R&D Lignite Energy Council Michael Jones Ph.D. Vice President, R&D Lignite Energy Council

2 State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Emission Control Technologies Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Emission Control Technologies Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game Agenda

3 Lignite Research Councils R&D Program Public / Private Partnership Lignite Energy Council Lignite Energy Council State of North Dakota State of North Dakota An Industry/Government Partnership

4 Cleaner Coal Technology Paths Coal Cleaning More efficient power plants More effective technologies to reduce SO 2, NOx, Hg & CO 2 emissions Coal Cleaning More efficient power plants More effective technologies to reduce SO 2, NOx, Hg & CO 2 emissions

5 Leveraging State Dollars For every state dollar, six dollars is invested from industry & other sources in lignite- related R&D projects = =

6 Active Lignite Research Projects Quick Review of Active Projects (24) 1LEC Lignite Vision 21 Program project 3Separate LV21P projects 3Mercury-related projects 1NOx-related project 4Lignite gasification-related projects 8CO2 Carbon Capture & Storage-related projects 1Regional marketing project (PAE) 1Lignite-fueled Ag production – Red Trail Project 1Coal combustion products projects 1Air toxic metals project – CATM Quick Review of Active Projects (24) 1LEC Lignite Vision 21 Program project 3Separate LV21P projects 3Mercury-related projects 1NOx-related project 4Lignite gasification-related projects 8CO2 Carbon Capture & Storage-related projects 1Regional marketing project (PAE) 1Lignite-fueled Ag production – Red Trail Project 1Coal combustion products projects 1Air toxic metals project – CATM

7 State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game Agenda

8 Future of Lignite The resource: 800 year supply of lignite R&D holds the key to expanding lignites economic benefits R&D holds the key to expanding lignites economic benefits

9 A Look at Lignite Organic Matter C, H, O, S, N Organic Matter C, H, O, S, N Inorganic Matter SiO 2, Al 2 O 3 -Clays, FeS 2 Inorganic Matter SiO 2, Al 2 O 3 -Clays, FeS 2 Lignite Water 55% 10% 35%

10 Electric Power Generation - 79% Synthetic Natural Gas % Specialty Products 7.5% ND Lignite Consumption

11 State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game Agenda

12 Current Energy Conversion Technologies Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers 2400 PSI Steam; 1000ºF Up to 600 MW/unit in ND 30-32% Efficient 2400 PSI Steam; 1000ºF Up to 600 MW/unit in ND 30-32% Efficient

13 Current Energy Conversion Technologies Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers Antelope Valley Station Coal Creek Station M.R. Young Station

14 Current Energy Conversion Technologies Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers Coyote Station Leland Olds Station Stanton Station

15 State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game Agenda

16 Future Generating Technologies Advanced Pulverized Coal Oxy-fuel Combustion Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Advanced Pulverized Coal Oxy-fuel Combustion Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

17 Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant 3500 PSI Steam; 1050ºF Up to 1300 MW / unit 35-40% Efficient 3500 PSI Steam; 1050ºF Up to 1300 MW / unit 35-40% Efficient Future Generating Technologies

18 Oxy-combustion Technology consideration to capture CO 2 Energy penalty ~ 1/3 (450 MW Gross yields 300 MW Net) First demonstrations underway in US and Europe Technology consideration to capture CO 2 Energy penalty ~ 1/3 (450 MW Gross yields 300 MW Net) First demonstrations underway in US and Europe

19 Future Generating Technologies IGCC Up to 300 MW / Unit 40-45% Efficient Cost, availability & lack of lignite experience are issues Up to 300 MW / Unit 40-45% Efficient Cost, availability & lack of lignite experience are issues

20 Future Generating Technologies Gasification End Products Electric Power Synthetic Natural Gas Liquid Transportation Fuels Hydrogen Chemicals Gasification End Products Electric Power Synthetic Natural Gas Liquid Transportation Fuels Hydrogen Chemicals

21 Coal-to-Liquids Headwaters Inc., North American Coal Corp. & Falkirk Mining Co. are exploring a coal-to-liquid fuels project near Underwood, ND Will gasify coal and convert it into ultra-clean gasoline, LPG, propane & electricity 12 million tons of coal to produce 30,000 barrels per day of gasoline Conducting feasibility studies; next step is decision to conduct a front-end engineering & design study ($50+ million) Construction start – 2012???; commercial start – 2015??? Headwaters Inc., North American Coal Corp. & Falkirk Mining Co. are exploring a coal-to-liquid fuels project near Underwood, ND Will gasify coal and convert it into ultra-clean gasoline, LPG, propane & electricity 12 million tons of coal to produce 30,000 barrels per day of gasoline Conducting feasibility studies; next step is decision to conduct a front-end engineering & design study ($50+ million) Construction start – 2012???; commercial start – 2015???

22 Coal-to-Hydrogen-Power Great Northern Project Development is exploring a coal-to-hydrogen project near South Heart, ND Will use ~2.4 million tons of lignite / year To gasify lignite and convert it into hydrogen for use in combustion turbine Conducting feasibility studies; about to move into a front-end engineering & design study ($30+ million) Construction start – 2012???; commercial start – 2015??? Great Northern Project Development is exploring a coal-to-hydrogen project near South Heart, ND Will use ~2.4 million tons of lignite / year To gasify lignite and convert it into hydrogen for use in combustion turbine Conducting feasibility studies; about to move into a front-end engineering & design study ($30+ million) Construction start – 2012???; commercial start – 2015???

23 State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game State-industry R&D partnership Lignite resource Current energy conversion technologies Future energy conversion technologies Controlling emissions Summary Lignite Jeopardy Game Agenda

24 Emission Control Technologies Particulate Matter (PM) reduction >99.99% Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction >97% Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) reduction 50% > 90% goal Mercury (Hg) reduction 50% - 90% > 90% goal Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) ??? % Particulate Matter (PM) reduction >99.99% Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction >97% Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) reduction 50% > 90% goal Mercury (Hg) reduction 50% - 90% > 90% goal Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) ??? %

25 Wet Scrubber Boiler Stack Baghouse Coal Overfire Air, low NOx, burners, injection of ammonia Emission Control Technologies Electrostatic Precipitator Stack Dry Scrubber

26 Capturing Mercury Is Difficult! A hypothetical example: Dome filled with 30 billion ping pong balls 30 mercury balls Remove 27 balls for 90% Hg capture Houston Astrodome

27 Wet Scrubber Boiler Stack Baghouse Coal Oxidation Chemicals Mercury Control Options Electrostatic Precipitator Stack Dry Scrubber Activated Carbon & Oxidation Chemicals

28 Summary of CO 2 Capture Technologies AbsorptionAdsorptionMembranesCryogenicsOthers Chemical Physical Amines Caustics Amino acid salts Others Selexol Rectisol Ionic liquids Others Chemical (TSA) Physical (PSA, TSA) Metal oxides Metal organic frameworks Others Zeolites Activated Carbons Si/Al gels Organic Inorganic Polysulphone Cellulose derivatives Polymide Liquid Enzyme Others Metallic Ceramics Others Chemical Looping CO2 Hydrates Oxycombustion Microbial/ Algae Carbon Capture R&D processes being explored by the National Energy Technology Laboratories

29 Carbon Capture Technologies EERC Oxyfuel / Amine Scrubbing Study (2/07) Conclusions assuming 90% capture of CO 2 : Amine scrubbing & oxyfuel models were developed and shared with industry Amine scrubbing results in cost of electricity (COE) of 10.8 cents/kWh (4.6 cents/kWh without carbon capture) Oxyfuel combustion results in COE of 10.9 cents/kWh (4.6 cents/kWh without carbon capture) EERC Oxyfuel / Amine Scrubbing Study (2/07) Conclusions assuming 90% capture of CO 2 : Amine scrubbing & oxyfuel models were developed and shared with industry Amine scrubbing results in cost of electricity (COE) of 10.8 cents/kWh (4.6 cents/kWh without carbon capture) Oxyfuel combustion results in COE of 10.9 cents/kWh (4.6 cents/kWh without carbon capture)

30 DOE CCS Program Goals By 2020, have available for commercial deployment technologies and best practices for achieving: 90% CO2 capture 99%+ storage permanence < 10% increase in COE (pre- combustion capture) < 35% increase in COE (post- and oxy-combustion) By 2020, have available for commercial deployment technologies and best practices for achieving: 90% CO2 capture 99%+ storage permanence < 10% increase in COE (pre- combustion capture) < 35% increase in COE (post- and oxy-combustion)

31 CO 2 Capture Technology R&D Timeline Large-Scale Field Testing Laboratory-Bench-Pilot Scale R&D Full-Scale Demos Commercial Deployment

32 NDIC Funding Commitment Carbon capture-related projects: Carbozyme membrane technology $260,000 Partnership for CO2 capture 300,000 Canadian Clean Power Coalition 130,000 AVS Carbon Capture FEED 2,700,000 Partnership for CO2 capture II 150,000 Oxy-firing Alstom 550,000 Evaluation of Novel CO2 Capture 50,000 $4,140,000 Carbon storage-related projects: PCOR Phase II $720,000 PCOR Phase III 2,400,000 $3,120,000 Total CCS commitment $7,260,000 NDIC Funding Commitment Carbon capture-related projects: Carbozyme membrane technology $260,000 Partnership for CO2 capture 300,000 Canadian Clean Power Coalition 130,000 AVS Carbon Capture FEED 2,700,000 Partnership for CO2 capture II 150,000 Oxy-firing Alstom 550,000 Evaluation of Novel CO2 Capture 50,000 $4,140,000 Carbon storage-related projects: PCOR Phase II $720,000 PCOR Phase III 2,400,000 $3,120,000 Total CCS commitment $7,260,000 Carbon Management Initiatives NDIC Investment

33 Partnership for CO 2 Capture EERC project approved by LRC/NDIC – May 2008 Develop & demonstrate a range of CO 2 capture technologies to include pre-combustion, post- combustion & oxy-combustion technologies $3.4 million project (DOE/EERC $2.4 M; Industry $750 K; NDIC $300 K) Start date: 6/08; Completion date: 06/10 Phase II, ~$2M, Start 7/10 Partnership for CO 2 Capture EERC project approved by LRC/NDIC – May 2008 Develop & demonstrate a range of CO 2 capture technologies to include pre-combustion, post- combustion & oxy-combustion technologies $3.4 million project (DOE/EERC $2.4 M; Industry $750 K; NDIC $300 K) Start date: 6/08; Completion date: 06/10 Phase II, ~$2M, Start 7/10 Carbon Management Initiatives

34 Plains Carbon Dioxide Reduction Partnership (PCOR) Phase I – Characterization of sources & sinks ( ) Phase II – Small-scale field validation tests ( ) Phase III – Large volume carbon storage test ( ) Plains Carbon Dioxide Reduction Partnership (PCOR) Phase I – Characterization of sources & sinks ( ) Phase II – Small-scale field validation tests ( ) Phase III – Large volume carbon storage test ( ) Carbon Management Initiatives

35 PCOR Phase III ( ) Large-scale demo projects over 10 years Capturing CO 2 from AVS & storage in geological formations CO 2 storage to include enhanced oil recovery & deep saline aquifer storage DOE committed $67 million NDIC committed $2.4 million – 2/08 Total Project Cost (capture & storage) >$300 M PCOR Phase III ( ) Large-scale demo projects over 10 years Capturing CO 2 from AVS & storage in geological formations CO 2 storage to include enhanced oil recovery & deep saline aquifer storage DOE committed $67 million NDIC committed $2.4 million – 2/08 Total Project Cost (capture & storage) >$300 M Carbon Management Initiatives

36 Carbon Capture Project at AVS Demonstration / commercialization project AVS – two 450 MW units 120 MW slipstream Capture 90% of CO 2 (Powerspan technology) 57 MMSCF or 3,000 tons CO 2 / day CO 2 to be used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in western North Dakota FEED study in 2010 Construction in 2011 ??? Operational in 2014 ??? Carbon Capture Project at AVS Demonstration / commercialization project AVS – two 450 MW units 120 MW slipstream Capture 90% of CO 2 (Powerspan technology) 57 MMSCF or 3,000 tons CO 2 / day CO 2 to be used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in western North Dakota FEED study in 2010 Construction in 2011 ??? Operational in 2014 ???

37 Carbon Sequestration - EOR

38 Carbon Sequestration SaskPower CO 2 capture & storage project $1.4 billion, 7-year demonstration project announced 2/27/08 Partnership: Gov. of Canada, Gov. of Sask., SaskPower & industry Project at Boundary Dam 150 MW Unit III (existing unit) Designed to capture ~ 1 million tons CO 2 / year CO 2 capture technology & vendor to be determined CO 2 to be used for EOR Expected to be fully operational by 2015 Carbon Sequestration SaskPower CO 2 capture & storage project $1.4 billion, 7-year demonstration project announced 2/27/08 Partnership: Gov. of Canada, Gov. of Sask., SaskPower & industry Project at Boundary Dam 150 MW Unit III (existing unit) Designed to capture ~ 1 million tons CO 2 / year CO 2 capture technology & vendor to be determined CO 2 to be used for EOR Expected to be fully operational by 2015 Carbon Management Initiatives

39 Carbon Management Initiatives DOE Carbon Sequestration Program

40 Coal Drying Activity As mined, lignite is approximately one-third moisture. This makes it uneconomical to transport by rail. However, a coal drying facility is now operational at Coal Creek Station that may make transporting lignite a more economical proposition. The coal drying project has its roots in a simple experiment that you can simulate in the classroom. As mined, lignite is approximately one-third moisture. This makes it uneconomical to transport by rail. However, a coal drying facility is now operational at Coal Creek Station that may make transporting lignite a more economical proposition. The coal drying project has its roots in a simple experiment that you can simulate in the classroom.

41 Coal Drying Procedure Weigh about 100 grams of lignite on a paper plate. Place the coal onto a cookie sheet and place it in an oven set at its lowest temperature – 100 or 120 F for four hours. Reweigh the coal to determine the weight loss due to moisture and calculate the percent of moisture. Weigh about 100 grams of lignite on a paper plate. Place the coal onto a cookie sheet and place it in an oven set at its lowest temperature – 100 or 120 F for four hours. Reweigh the coal to determine the weight loss due to moisture and calculate the percent of moisture.

42 Coal Drying Procedure Alternative Drying Methods Dry the lignite using the waste heat from a light bulb. This method will model Coal Creeks use of waste heat from its boiler. Simply place the lignite in a sunny window and let it dry. Weigh the sample each day until the weight is constant for two days. Alternative Drying Methods Dry the lignite using the waste heat from a light bulb. This method will model Coal Creeks use of waste heat from its boiler. Simply place the lignite in a sunny window and let it dry. Weigh the sample each day until the weight is constant for two days.

43 Coal Drying Activity (Cont.) Coal Creek pulverizes the coal prior to drying, so students can compare the rate of moisture loss and total amount of moisture lost between crushed and uncrushed coal. Pulverized coal has greater surface area and should dry faster than coal in larger pieces.

44 Prototype Coal Dryer Prototype model built adjacent to the plant (1/06) Used waste heat to dry the coal after it was pulverized Tests showed how much heat & time needed Now 8 coal dryers have been installed to dry all of the coal (operational 12/09) Prototype model built adjacent to the plant (1/06) Used waste heat to dry the coal after it was pulverized Tests showed how much heat & time needed Now 8 coal dryers have been installed to dry all of the coal (operational 12/09)

45 Coal Drying – Using Waste Heat Waste Energy Lignite Exhaust Gas Non Fluidized Fines Dried Coal Dryer Bag House Less fuel Less emissions Less maintenance More generation Greater efficiency Greater value of lignite

46 Coal Cleaning at the Mine Air jigging and magnetic separation Significantly improved overall quality Increased heat content & reduced ash, Hg & S Used in conjunction with Coal Creek and Antelope Valley Stations operations Air jigging and magnetic separation Significantly improved overall quality Increased heat content & reduced ash, Hg & S Used in conjunction with Coal Creek and Antelope Valley Stations operations

47 Coal Technology R&D Pathways Critical R&D Challenges to Near Zero Emissions From Coal Advanced Coal Power and Multiple Products Improve Reliability Maximize Efficiencies Near Zero Criteria Pollutants Near Zero Water Usage Near Zero Greenhouse Gases Pulverized Coal Power Generation Improve Efficiencies Minimize Criteria Pollutants Minimize Water Usage Minimize Greenhouse Gases Future PlantsNear Term Plants Technology Bridge to Near Zero Emissions Courtesy of NETL

48 U.S. needs more sources of energy & needs to lessen dependence on foreign sources Lignite is a valuable source of energy & chemical products R&D is critical in the wise use of this abundant resource U.S. needs more sources of energy & needs to lessen dependence on foreign sources Lignite is a valuable source of energy & chemical products R&D is critical in the wise use of this abundant resource Summary

49 Questions? ???

50 Activity LIGNITE JEOPARDY GAME LIGNITE JEOPARDY GAME

51 Thanks for Listening!


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