Presentation on theme: "Ongoing work within the Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jon Gibbins UKCCSC meeting, Nottingham."— Presentation transcript:
Ongoing work within the Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jon Gibbins UKCCSC meeting, Nottingham University, 18/04/2007
INTRODUCTION The first generation of full-scale CCS plants is likely going to be built within the next 5-10 years worldwide. The EU has announced indicative targets : 12 CCS plants before 2015, CCS becomes routine by Some of these plants will be built in the UK and will start to operate with capture by But most plants to be built worldwide before 2020 will operate for a significant part of their life without CCS. Some answers to the issues associated with CCS in the power plant industry?
PERFORMANCE OF PULVERISED COAL PLANTS WITH CO 2 POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE (1) Reduce the energy penalty associated with CO 2 capture 1/3 of this penalty => CO 2 compression 2/3 of this penalty => Solvent regeneration by taking steam from the steam turbines For a power plant user: steam is electricity and electricity is money Better integration of the CO 2 capture plant with the turbines/steam cycle is required
PERFORMANCE OF PULVERISED COAL PLANTS WITH CO 2 POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE (2) How a tight integration affect the operability of the plant? For the first generation of CCS plant the operability of the capture plant is likely to be low during the 1 st years of operation These plants have to be able to operate without CO 2 capture to keep the lights on !!! Consequences on plant/turbine/steam cycle design
CAPTURE-READY POWER PLANTS (1) Plants which have the ability to include CO 2 capture when the necessary regulatory or economic drivers are in place Objective: 1. avoid the risk of stranded assets for the power plant industry 2. avoid consequent carbon lock-in for society Minimal requirements: 1. Inclusion of sufficient space and access for the additional plant 2. Identification of a reasonable route towards CO 2 storage => IEA GHG report on capture-ready power plants to be released in 2007
CAPTURE-READY POWER PLANTS (2) For post-combustion capture some pre-investments in the steam cycle can be economically justified and allow to operate the plant: 1. with similar performance to standards units without CCS 2. with close performances to new-build CCS units 3. with a reduced retrofit time/plant outage 4. without capture after retrofit if required Facing the uncertainty of technology developments 1.Oxyfuel or post-combustion capture-ready for pulverised coal power plants 2. Design for a solvent with advanced performance but retrofit with post-combustion capture with today available solvent
PART-LOAD PERFORMANCE Fossil-fuelled power plants are used to follow electricity seasonal/daily variation. Increasing integration of intermittent renewable electricity sources within the grid Pulverised coal power plants are likely to be operated more often at part-load in future. Reactivity to electricity demand variation is going to become a key issue. No existing data of coal plants with CO 2 capture operated at part-load => Potential for flexible operation of pulverised coal power plants with CO 2 capture, Conference paper to be presented in 2007
ENHANCED FLEXIBILITY with post-combustion capture(1) It is possible to improve the value of plants with CO 2 capture by delaying/altering the energy penalty associated with post- combustion capture. Electricity selling price varies seasonally but also daily. Selling electricity when people turn their kettles on is highly profitable!! Solvent storage/CO 2 venting can be used to alter/delay the energy penalty associated with CO 2 capture It can increase plant electricity output by approximately 20% when required for post-combustion capture Initial Assessment of Flexibility of Pulverised Coal Fired Power Plants with CO 2 Capture, Conference paper to be presented in 2007
It is done by by-passing the solvent reboiler and switching off the CO 2 compression train for a short period. Solvent storage + delayed regeneration has no additional CO 2 emissions Economic trade-off between solvent storage + delayed regeneration and CO 2 venting. Possible additional revenues for power plant users depending on CO 2 prices and electricity selling prices. Performance when storing/regenerating solvent needs has been partially characterised at Imperial ENHANCED FLEXIBILITY with post-combustion capture(2) => Initial evaluation of the impact of post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide on supercritical pulverised coal power plant part load performance, Fuel, 2007
Characterise plant performance at part-load and with varying levels of CO 2 capture Develop model of the post-combustion capture plant => New DTI project + BCURA (British Coal Utilisation Research Association) project with Chemical Engineering Department at Imperial College Co-combustion of biomass + coal. => BCURA project Develop techno-economic methods to value flexibility of power plants CCS deployment option, including in China => Near Zero Emission in China (NZEC) project FURTHER WORK within the next 6-12 months
THANK YOU ANY QUESTIONS?
FLUE GAS COOLER to stack STRIPPER SOLVENT REBOILER SCRUBBER Cooling water Flue gas solvent Steam cycle condensate CO 2 Condensate from CO 2 CO2 compressed for transport Steam from turbine island STORAGE TANK 2 STORAGE TANK 1 turbine island
HP LP Spray IP Heat Recovery from CO 2 Plant Heat to Solvent Reboiler Generator Condenser Reheater Boiler Valve 2 Valve 1