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Ongoing work within the Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jon Gibbins UKCCSC meeting, Nottingham.

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Presentation on theme: "Ongoing work within the Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jon Gibbins UKCCSC meeting, Nottingham."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ongoing work within the Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Jon Gibbins UKCCSC meeting, Nottingham University, 18/04/2007

2 INTRODUCTION The first generation of full-scale CCS plants is likely going to be built within the next 5-10 years worldwide. The EU has announced indicative targets : 12 CCS plants before 2015, CCS becomes routine by 2020. Some of these plants will be built in the UK and will start to operate with capture by 2011-2012 But most plants to be built worldwide before 2020 will operate for a significant part of their life without CCS. Some answers to the issues associated with CCS in the power plant industry?

3 PERFORMANCE OF PULVERISED COAL PLANTS WITH CO 2 POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE (1) Reduce the energy penalty associated with CO 2 capture 1/3 of this penalty => CO 2 compression 2/3 of this penalty => Solvent regeneration by taking steam from the steam turbines For a power plant user: steam is electricity and electricity is money Better integration of the CO 2 capture plant with the turbines/steam cycle is required

4 PERFORMANCE OF PULVERISED COAL PLANTS WITH CO 2 POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE (2) How a tight integration affect the operability of the plant? For the first generation of CCS plant the operability of the capture plant is likely to be low during the 1 st years of operation These plants have to be able to operate without CO 2 capture to keep the lights on !!! Consequences on plant/turbine/steam cycle design

5 CAPTURE-READY POWER PLANTS (1) Plants which have the ability to include CO 2 capture when the necessary regulatory or economic drivers are in place Objective: 1. avoid the risk of stranded assets for the power plant industry 2. avoid consequent carbon lock-in for society Minimal requirements: 1. Inclusion of sufficient space and access for the additional plant 2. Identification of a reasonable route towards CO 2 storage => IEA GHG report on capture-ready power plants to be released in 2007

6 CAPTURE-READY POWER PLANTS (2) For post-combustion capture some pre-investments in the steam cycle can be economically justified and allow to operate the plant: 1. with similar performance to standards units without CCS 2. with close performances to new-build CCS units 3. with a reduced retrofit time/plant outage 4. without capture after retrofit if required Facing the uncertainty of technology developments 1.Oxyfuel or post-combustion capture-ready for pulverised coal power plants 2. Design for a solvent with advanced performance but retrofit with post-combustion capture with today available solvent

7 PART-LOAD PERFORMANCE Fossil-fuelled power plants are used to follow electricity seasonal/daily variation. Increasing integration of intermittent renewable electricity sources within the grid Pulverised coal power plants are likely to be operated more often at part-load in future. Reactivity to electricity demand variation is going to become a key issue. No existing data of coal plants with CO 2 capture operated at part-load => Potential for flexible operation of pulverised coal power plants with CO 2 capture, Conference paper to be presented in 2007

8 ENHANCED FLEXIBILITY with post-combustion capture(1) It is possible to improve the value of plants with CO 2 capture by delaying/altering the energy penalty associated with post- combustion capture. Electricity selling price varies seasonally but also daily. Selling electricity when people turn their kettles on is highly profitable!! Solvent storage/CO 2 venting can be used to alter/delay the energy penalty associated with CO 2 capture It can increase plant electricity output by approximately 20% when required for post-combustion capture Initial Assessment of Flexibility of Pulverised Coal Fired Power Plants with CO 2 Capture, Conference paper to be presented in 2007

9 It is done by by-passing the solvent reboiler and switching off the CO 2 compression train for a short period. Solvent storage + delayed regeneration has no additional CO 2 emissions Economic trade-off between solvent storage + delayed regeneration and CO 2 venting. Possible additional revenues for power plant users depending on CO 2 prices and electricity selling prices. Performance when storing/regenerating solvent needs has been partially characterised at Imperial ENHANCED FLEXIBILITY with post-combustion capture(2) => Initial evaluation of the impact of post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide on supercritical pulverised coal power plant part load performance, Fuel, 2007

10 Characterise plant performance at part-load and with varying levels of CO 2 capture Develop model of the post-combustion capture plant => New DTI project + BCURA (British Coal Utilisation Research Association) project with Chemical Engineering Department at Imperial College Co-combustion of biomass + coal. => BCURA project Develop techno-economic methods to value flexibility of power plants CCS deployment option, including in China => Near Zero Emission in China (NZEC) project FURTHER WORK within the next 6-12 months

11 THANK YOU ANY QUESTIONS?

12 FLUE GAS COOLER to stack STRIPPER SOLVENT REBOILER SCRUBBER Cooling water Flue gas solvent Steam cycle condensate CO 2 Condensate from CO 2 CO2 compressed for transport Steam from turbine island STORAGE TANK 2 STORAGE TANK 1 turbine island

13 HP LP Spray IP Heat Recovery from CO 2 Plant Heat to Solvent Reboiler Generator Condenser Reheater Boiler Valve 2 Valve 1


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