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Robert Romanosky Advanced Research Technology Manager

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Presentation on theme: "Robert Romanosky Advanced Research Technology Manager"— Presentation transcript:

1 Clean Domestic Power: Opportunities and Considerations for Utilization of Fossil Fuel
Robert Romanosky Advanced Research Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory February 8-10, 2010

2 Energy Contributes to Quality of Life
GDP vs. Energy Consumption Qatar U.S. UK Mexico Bahrain South Africa Peru (US$ / person / yr) GDP per Capita Congo Bulgaria China Eritrea India Annual Energy Consumption per Capita (kgoe / person / yr) Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2008; Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat: IEA Statistics Division

3 Fossil Energy Continues to Dominate Supply
Energy Demand 2006 100 QBtu / Year 85% Fossil Energy Renewables 6% Nuclear 8% Coal 23% Gas 22% Oil 41% 465 QBtu / Year 81% Fossil Energy 13% 26% 21% 34% Energy Demand 2030 675 QBtu / Year 81% Fossil Energy 111 QBtu / Year 78% Fossil Energy + 45% + 11% Renewables 13% Nuclear 8% Coal 23% Gas 22% Oil 34% 14% 5% 29% 30% United States World Fossil Energy Continues to Dominate Supply U.S. data from EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2009, ARRA release ; world data from IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008

4 Challenge and Program Driver: Annual CO2 Emissions Extremely Large
Total Release in the U.S., short tons per year Mercury 120 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) 15,000,000 Municipal Solid Waste 230,000,000 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 6,300,000,000 1 million metric tons of CO2: Every year would fill a volume of 32 million cubic feet Close to the volume of the Empire State Building Data sources: Mercury - EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999 data); SO2 - EPA air trends (2002 data); MSW - EPA OSWER fact sheet (2001 data); CO2 - EIA AEO 2004 (2002 data)

5 Technological Carbon Management Options Pathways for Reducing GHGs -CO2
Reduce Carbon Intensity Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon Renewables Nuclear Fuel Switching Demand Side Supply Side Enhance Natural Sinks Capture & Store All options needed to: Affordably meet energy demand Address environmental objectives

6 DOE Fossil Energy Coal RD&D Platform
Goals Approaches Programs Technologies & Best Practices < 10% increase COE with CCS (pre-combustion) < 35% increase COE with CCS (post- and oxy-combustion) < $400/kW fuel cell systems (2002 $) > 50% plant efficiency, up to 60% with fuel cells > 90% CO2 capture > 99% CO2 storage permanence +/- 30% storage capacity resolution RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Core Coal and Power Systems R&D DOE – FE – NETL Post Combustion CO2 Capture Oxy-Fired Combustion Chemical Looping UltraSupercritical Combustion Materials & Modeling Process Integration & Control Demonstration & Deployment Programs TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION Clean Coal Power Initiative Stimulus Activities DOE – FE – NETL FINANCIAL INCENTIVES Tax Credits Loan Guarantees DOE – LGO – IRS

7 Coal Based Power A Portfolio of Alternate Paths
Fuel Cell Membranes PETROCHEMICAL PLANT Fuels GASIFICATION O2 water shift selexol IGCC Air AIR BLOWN IGCC CHEMICAL LOOPING IGCC Chemical O2 & Carbonate looping Carbonate looping CFB USC CFB ADVANCED CFB Oxygen Fired CFB or PC MEA PC USC PC CO2 Capture COMBUSTION HYBRID

8 Fossil Energy CO2 Capture Solutions
Post-combustion (existing, new PC) Pre-combustion (IGCC) Oxycombustion (new PC) CO2 compression (all) Chemical looping OTM boiler Biological processes Ionic liquids Metal organic frameworks Enzymatic membranes PBI membranes Solid sorbents Membrane systems ITMs Biomass co- firing Advanced physical solvents Advanced chemical solvents Ammonia CO2 com- pression Cost Reduction Benefit Amine solvents Physical solvents Cryogenic oxygen CO2 Capture Targets: 90% CO2 Capture <10% increase in COE (IGCC) <35% increase in COE (PC) 2010 2015 2020 Time to Commercialization OTM – O2 Transport Membrane (PC) ITM – O2 Ion Transport Membrane (PC or IGCC)

9 Advanced PC Oxy-combustion
Challenges Cryogenic ASUs are capital and energy intensive Excess O2 and inerts (N2, Ar) h CO2 purification cost Existing boiler air infiltration Corrosion and process control Ultra-supercritical Oxyboilers Fireside Wall side Water-wall tube heat transfer Boiler size reduced by >30% Advanced Oxy-combustion R&D Focus New oxyfuel boilers Advanced materials and burners Corrosion Low-cost oxygen  O2 Membranes Retrofit existing air boilers Air leakage, heat transfer, corrosion Process control CO2 purification Co-capture (CO2 + SOx, NOx, O2) Oxygen Membranes Current Scale: Computational modeling through 5 MWe Pilot-scale Partners (11 projects): Praxair, Air Products, Jupiter, Alstom, B&W, Foster Wheeler, REI, SRI

10 Chemical Looping Combustion
Chemical Looping Advantages: Oxy-combustion without an O2 plant Potential lowest cost option for near-zero emission coal power plant <20% COE penalty New and existing PC power plant designs Key Challenges Solids transport Heat Integration Air Reactor (Oxidizer) CaS + 2O2  CaSO4 + Heat Oxy-Firing without Oxygen Plant Solid Oxygen Carrier circulates between Oxidizer and Reducer Oxygen Carrier: Carries Oxygen, Heat and Fuel Energy Carrier picks up O2 in the Oxidizer, leaves N2 behind Carrier Burns the Fuel in the Reducer Heat produces Steam for Power Steam Air MBHX Ox 2000F N2 + O2 CaS CaSO4 Status 2010 Alstom Pilot test (1 MWe) 1000 lb/hr coal flow 1st Integrated operation 1st Autothermal Operation Red 1700F Fuel CO2 + H2O Fuel Reactor (Reducer) CaSO4 + 2C + Heat  2CO2 + CaS CaSO4 + 4H2 + Heat  4H2O + CaS Key Partners (2 projects): Alstom Power (Limestone Based), Ohio State (Metal Oxide)

11 UltraSupercritical Boilers and Turbines
Current technology for USC Boilers Typical subcritical = 540 °C Typical supercritical = 593 °C Most advanced supercritical = ~610 °C USC Plant efficiency is improved to 45 to 47% HHV Ultrasupercritical (USC) DOE goal for higher efficiency and much lower emissions, materials capable of: 760 °C (1400 °F) 5,000 psi Oxygen firing Meeting these targets requires: The use of new materials Novel uses of existing materials

12 Benefit of Higher Efficiency in Reducing CO2
(Bituminous coal, without CO2 capture) 20% reduction in CO2 corresponds with similar reductions (per MWh) in consumables including coal and limestone (reducing front-end equipment size), flue gas volume (reducing back-end and emission control equipment size), and overall emissions, water use, and waste generation 2 Percentage Point Efficiency Gain = 5% CO2 Reduction

13 Efficiency Contribution from Sensors and Controls Value Derived for an Existing Coal Fired Power Plant 1% HEAT RATE improvement 500 MW net capacity unit $700,000/yr coal cost savings 1% reduction in gaseous and solid emissions Entire coal-fired fleet $300 million/yr coal cost savings Reduction of 14.5 million metric tons CO2 per year 1% increase in AVAILABILITY 35 million kWh/yr added generation Approximately $2 million/yr in sales 6 cents/kWh) More than 2 GW of additional power from existing fleet Analysis based on 2008 coal costs and 2008 coal-fired power plant fleet (units greater than 300 MW)

14 Carbon Sequestration Program Goals
Deliver technologies & best practices that provide Carbon Capture and Safe Storage (CCSS) with: 90% CO2 capture at source 99% storage permanence < 10% increase in COE Pre-combustion capture (IGCC) < 35% increase in COE Post-combustion & Oxy-combustion Core R&D Simulation and Risk Assessment Pre-combustion Capture Geologic Storage Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) CO2 Use/Reuse Global Collaborations North America Energy Working Group Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum International Demonstration Projects Asia-Pacific Partnership (APP) Infrastructure Characterization Validation Development Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

15 National Atlas Highlights - 2008
U.S. Emissions ~ 6 Billion Tons CO2/yr all sources ~ 2 Billion Tons CO2/yr coal-fired power plants Saline Formations North American CO2 Storage Potential (Billion Metric Tons) Oil and Gas Fields Unmineable Coal Seams Sink Type Low High Saline Formations 3,300 12,600 Unmineable Coal Seams 160 180 Oil & Gas Fields 140 Hundreds of Years Storage Potential Conservative Resource Assessment Available for download at

16 Demonstration & Deployment Programs
Reduce risk and promote adoption of new technology at large scales Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) Industrial Carbon Capture & Sequestration (ICCS) FutureGen

17 PPII & CCPI Demonstration Projects Locations & Cost Share
Project Locations for ICCS Area 1 Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources Archer Daniels Midland; Industrial Power & Ethanol; Saline, DOW Alstom Amine, Decatur, IL Air Products, H2 Production; EOR, BASF’s aMDEA Port Arthur, TX; Battelle, Boise White Paper Mill, Basalt, Fluor Econamine Plus, Washington C6 (Shell); H2 Production; Saline, ADIP-X Amine, Solano, CA Conoco Phillips; IGGC- Petcoke; Depleted NG/EOR, Selexol, Sweeny, TX Praxair; H2 for Refinery; EOR, VPSA, Texas City, TX Texas Energy; Petcoke Gasification (H2, MeOH & NH3); EOR, Rectisol, Beaumont, TX Cemex,; Cement; EOR & Saline, RTI Dry Carbonate Odessa, TX Leucadia Energy; SNG from petcoke; EOR, Rectisol, Mississippi Leucadia Energy; Methanol; EOR, Rectisol, Lake Charles, LA Project Location Industry Type / Product Sequestration Type CO2 Capture Technology Univ. of Utah; Ammonia & Cement; EOR & Saline, Dehydration, Coffeyville, KS Wolverine, CFB Power; EOR, Hitachi Amine, Rogers City, MI PPII & CCPI Demonstration Projects Locations & Cost Share Emission Control Fuel Advanced Power Systems Excelsior Energy Mesaba Energy Project $2.16B – Total $36M – DOE Wisconsin Electric TOXECON Multi-pollutant Control $53M – Total $24.9M – DOE NeuCo (Baldwin) Integrated Optimization Software $19M – Total $8.6M – DOE NeuCo (Limestone) Mercury Specie & Multi-pollutant Control $15.6M – Total $6.1M – DOE CONSOL Greenidge Multi-pollutant Control $32.7M – Total $14.3M – DOE Southern Company IGCC-Transport Gasifier $2B – Total $294M – DOE Basin Electric Postcombustion CO2 Capture $287M – Total $100M – DOE HECA Commercial Demo of Advanced IGCC w/ Full Carbon Capture ~$2.8B – Total $308M – DOE Awarded In Negotiation Complete Great River Energy Lignite Fuel Enhancement $31.5M – Total $13.5M – DOE AEP Post Combustion CO2 Capture $668M – Total $334M – DOE Southern Company Services Post-combustion CO2 Capture $295M – DOE Summit TX Clean Energy ~$1.9B – Total $350M – DOE 17

18 FutureGen Objectives Establish technical, economic & environmental viability of “near- zero emission” coal-fueled plant by 2015 Validate DOE goals (ref. Report to Congress, dated March 2004): Sequester >90% CO2 with potential for ~100% >99% sulfur removal; <0.05 lb/MMBtu Nox; <0.005 lb/MMBtu PM; >90% Hg removal Prototype 275 MWe coal-based power plant of the future sized to: Utilize utility-scale (7FB) gas turbine Adequately stress saline geologic formation Integrate full-scale CCS operations Serve as potential test facility for emerging technologies

19 FutureGen Potential “Proving Ground” for Emerging Technology
Fuel Cells Carbon Sequestration FutureGen Gasification with Cleanup Separation System Integration Optimized Turbines H2 Production

20 Conclusions The U.S. power generation industry is at a critical juncture Demand, resources, workforce, reliability, regulation, grid integrity, transmission, etc. Competing demands for reliable, low-cost energy and climate change mitigation appear incongruent Uncertainty of regulatory outcomes and rising costs impact industry’s willingness to commit capital investment, endangering near-term production capacity The U.S. must foster new processes that address conflicting energy objectives simultaneously Our nation’s dependence on liquid fuel from foreign resources will continue to remain high for the near term

21 Office of Fossil Energy
Contact Information Robert R. Romanosky NETL Office of Fossil Energy

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