OUTLINE Introduction Why Bioenergy? Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Challenges Industrial tour Importance in my research Summary
Introduction Southeast: Favorable climate Multiple feedstocks Existing infrastructure The University of Georgia Conference Center
Why Bioenergy? Reduce the dependence on imported oil (US imports 10 million barrels per day). Reduce the release of greenhouse gases (Bioethanol reduces accumulation of carbon dioxide by 90% compared to reformulated gasoline).
Why Bioenergy? Petroleum represents a 40% of the source energy used in USA. Cellulosic biomass is an inexpensive resource. When added to gasoline, increases octane and provides oxygen, increases combustion reducing the gas pollution.
Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Biomass -Residue Harvesting -Energy Crops Sugar Platform -Enzymatic Hydrolysis -Lignin Products Products: Fuel, Chemicals, Materials,Heat and Power Thermochemical Platform -Pyrolysis -Gasification Biorefineries Sugar and lignin Intermediates Gas and Liquid Intermediates Source:Bioenergy Conference 2008
Cellulose biomass processing Source: Joy Doran Peterson
Future in cellulose biomass processing Source: Joy Doran Peterson
Cellulosic plants Challenges Identify the best conversion Technologies Development of public-private sector partnerships
Ethanol Today ethanol is made primarily from starch based sources like corn and sorghum. Ethanol production has a 34% energy gain (1 gallon of ethanol contains more energy that is required to produce it). Gasoline has an energy loss of 19.5%.
Ethanol and Corn Prices Source: USDA (United States Department of agriculture)
Challenges Develop fuels and chemicals by forestry and agricultural residues. Cost reductions technology advances (>100 gallons per ton of dry cellulosic biomass). Important cost contributors (feedstock costs represent 70-80% of the final product cost).
Challenges Pretreatment (less chemicals and energy). In 2025 farms will provide 25% of the total energy consumed in USA. Georgia is projected to produce 100 million of biodiesel and 400 million of ethanol by 2012. To produce 36 billion gallons of ethanol in 2022.
FIRST UNITED ETHANOL 100 Million gallon corn ethanol facility
Timber processing 100% Southern Yellow Pine Products for: laminating, painting, moulding, shaping and wrapping
Steam Boilers Hot Water Boilers Wood and Waste Fired Boilers BioMass Boilers Goal: reduce or eliminate energy and waste disponsal costs
PAULOWNIA TREE PLYWOOD OPERATION Production: 40 tons per acre per year
Importance in my research Pretreatment represents about 20% of the total production cost. Pretreatment disrupts the naturally resistant carbohydrate-lignin shield that limits the accessibility of enzymes to cellulose and hemicellulose. The chemical pretreatment offers high yields and low costs economic success.
Summary Pretreatment is the key to obtain low costs. Achieve high yield of sugar from biomass with low cost. More study is needed to make a commercial process. It is important to integrate the process.
Summary The Souhteast can be a national leader in biofuel production due its high feedstocks resources. Develop effective policies to accelerate commercialization, improve knowledge of cellulosic conversion and identify new technology.