2OUTLINE Introduction Why Bioenergy? Cellulosic Ethanol Technology ChallengesIndustrial tourImportance in my researchSummary
3The University of Georgia IntroductionSoutheast:Favorable climateMultiple feedstocksExisting infrastructureThe University of GeorgiaConference CenterFirst presentation by Dr. David Bransby= The Southeast: Prospects for Leading the nation in Bioenergy.-Southeast has a lot of feedstock resources (wood, switchgrass, corn)
4Why Bioenergy? Reduce the dependence on imported oil (US imports 10 million barrels per day).Reduce the release of greenhouse gases (Bioethanol reduces accumulation of carbon dioxide by 90% compared to reformulated gasoline).Second presentation by Dr. Gale Buchanan = Achieving Sustainable Energy Security-More than producing renewable energy-USA import 60% of the oil.-The principal countries that sale the oil are: Canada, Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela and Nigeria-The most important point is: to have a Sustantable Energy Security
5Sustantable Energy Security Why Bioenergy?Petroleum represents a 40% of the source energy used in USA.Cellulosic biomass is an inexpensive resource.When added to gasoline, increases octane and provides oxygen, increases combustion reducing the gas pollution.Does not compete as a food(cost of produce Bioethanol: in 1980 $4.63/gal and in 2008 $1.22/gal)1990.Sustantable Energy Security
6Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Sugar and ligninIntermediatesSugar Platform-Enzymatic Hydrolysis-Lignin ProductsProducts:Fuel, Chemicals,Materials,Heat and PowerBiomass-Residue Harvesting-Energy CropsBiorefineriesThermochemical Platform-Pyrolysis-GasificationGas and LiquidIntermediatesSource:Bioenergy Conference 2008
7B3I (Biofuels, Biopower, Biomaterials Initiative ) Biomass is treated to high temperature (pyrolysis and gasification) to produce a gas called SynGas made mostly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, or alternatively to produce bio-oil and char(solid carbon product). The syngas or bio-oil can be further processed into fuels such as ethanol and methanol and bio-oils that can be mined for valuable byproducts, such as flavorings and adhesives.Third presentation: Bill Bulpitt= BiodieselAlgae chlorella sp.Animal litter Biogas MethaneThe carbon is captured in the vehicles up to 90%Fourth presentation: Joy Doran Peterson= Biofuel, Biopower and Biomaterials Iniciative (B3I) Not your usual power plantCo-products: latic acid, ferulic acid, xylitol and animal feedSource: Joy Doran Peterson
8Cellulose biomass processing Source: Joy Doran Peterson
9Future in cellulose biomass processing Use a biotechnology to consolidate enzymatic breakdown of cellulose and microbial fermentation of sugars into a single step.Source: Joy Doran Peterson
10Cellulosic plants Challenges Identify the best conversion Technologies Development of public-private sector partnerships
11EthanolToday ethanol is made primarily from starch based sources like corn and sorghum.Ethanol production has a 34% energy gain (1 gallon of ethanol contains more energy that is required to produce it). Gasoline has an energy loss of 19.5%.Innovative technologies are developing methods to produce ethanol from additional sources, such as wood chips, switchgrass, landfill waste and more!
12Ethanol and Corn Prices Bushel1 bushel = 25,40 kgIt is necessary 10 gal of water per gal of ethanol produced (from corn)Source: USDA (United States Department of agriculture)
13ChallengesDevelop fuels and chemicals by forestry and agricultural residues.Cost reductions technology advances (>100 gallons per ton of dry cellulosic biomass).Important cost contributors (feedstock costs represent 70-80% of the final product cost).CommercializationRisk high capital costs
14Challenges Pretreatment (less chemicals and energy). In 2025 farms will provide 25% of the total energy consumed in USA.Georgia is projected to produce 100 million of biodiesel and 400 million of ethanol by 2012.To produce 36 billion gallons of ethanol in 2022.
15TorrefactionFith presentation: Joseph James= Using torrefied wood for electricity, Briguette and Pellet ProductionTorrefaction: drives off most of the water, reduce de bulk, makes a better co-fire feedstock to burn with coal, valuable fuel, easy crushed, dry and water resistant, does not rot, makes superior briguettes and pellets.Torrefied wood generates electricity similar than the generated by coal (35% fuel to electricity)Sixth presentation: Ross Harding = Feedstock quality for the Biofuels industry “the cost of quality”The supply chain is:Harvest and pre-processing, fuel laboratory and densification, drying and resizing.The most expensive factor is to obtain a constant chip size.-Size distribution chip thickness, chip lenght, fines content-Specific gravity (bulk density)-Composition moisture content, bark, lignin, ash, sugar yield, organic extractivesMoisture is a big issueSampling is critical due the feedstock vary by age, location, time of year, source.Seventh presentation: Ray Huhnke = Gasification of selected biomass feedstockGasification need high temperatures °C, produce CO2, CO and H2.Joy Peterson:using grass there is not necessary to use chemical pretreatment. Sugarbeet has 15-20% sucrose= 20 – 30 gallons of ethanol.Zymomonas mobilis converts C6 and C5 to ethanol. With 927C64 novel enzyme is possible to obtain high relative ethanol concentration.Ron Fagen: 1 gal of ethanol uses 3 gallons of water.Dr Baumes= Food and fuel 6000 million gallons of ethanol produced in 2007, 450 million gallons of biodisel in 2007May Wu= Life cycle analysis of ethanol issues and results. The major factors affecting cellulosic ethanol results (soil carbon, fertilizer, irrigation and other farming operation). Cellulosic ethanol has a larger positive fossil energy balance.Jason Henderson= Consumer price inflation =4
17FIRST UNITED ETHANOL 100 Million gallon corn ethanol facility In south georgiaConstruction of FUEL's 100 million gallon ethanol plant is scheduled for completion in Fall 2008FUEL is dedicated to constructing a 100 MGY corn-based ethanol manufacturing facility in southwest Georgia's corn-belt region. This will be a destination plant, which strategically creates value by being close to the customers and markets it serves. The facility will introduce a local source of distiller grains, which will redefine the region's poultry, cattle, and dairy feed industries. In addition, the facility will provide a new source of carbon dioxide to the southeast region which provides further manufacturing opportunities to the region. In addition to the economic impact to the region, the plant will provide farmers in the region with options to current crops, which will likely have significant subsidy pressure in the future. This project will continue to align with federal policy, which includes creating more energy security for the U.S., while sustaining or improving the environmental integrity of our air, soil and water.MISSION STATEMENT FUEL's mission is to provide economic opportunity to the southwest Georgia region by developing energy crop and biomass feedstock markets; and to maximize investor value with emerging co-product markets, providing creative energy solutions and being a low cost provider of fuel ethanol.100 Million gallon corn ethanol facility
18100% Southern Yellow Pine Timber processing Products for: laminating, painting, moulding, shaping and wrappingTimber processing facility. in Willacoochee, GeorgiaAt Langboard we produce oriented strand board, a structural panel ideally suited for a variety of applications.Langboard MDF is an engineered, wood-based panel. We use 100% Southern Yellow Pine which gives a light-colored MDF that works well in all applications. The chips and shavings are washed, classified, and refined with three high-energy Sunds Defiberator Refiners. The fiber is formed into a mat and pressed in a twenty opening, Washington Iron Works platen press. This, along with state of the art controls gives you a more uniform density and a flatter profile. This also gives excellent results with shaping, routing, and overall machineabilityOur eight head, Kimwood sander along with a cross belt sander will provide a smooth surface for laminating, with no grit lines. The Schellings Book Saw maintains clean cuts and accuracy that is setting the standard in our industry.Timber processing100% Southern Yellow Pine
19Wood and Waste Fired Boilers BioMass Boilers Steam BoilersHot Water Boilers Wood and Waste Fired BoilersBioMass Boilersa closed vessel or arrangement of vessels and tubes, together with a furnace or other heat source, in which steam or other vapor is generated from water to drive turbines or engines, supply heat, process certain materials, etc.Goal: reduce or eliminate energy and waste disponsal costs
20Production: 40 tons per acre per year PLYWOOD OPERATIONCan produce up to 40 tons per acre per yearLow maintenanceLow water requirement after first 12 weeksWell suited to SE USA conditionsDrought resistant once establishedExcellent potential return on properly managed plantations.Buy back guarantees by WPI and sister companies.Fast frowing harvest for timber in 5-6 yearsNo need to replant after harvest, trees regenerate from stumpExtremely drought resistant once establishedWorld´s fastest growing hardwoodThey cut after 1 year . It regenerates after that and this process can be made 8 times.PAULOWNIA TREEProduction: 40 tons per acre per year
21Importance in my research Pretreatment represents about 20% of the total production cost.Pretreatment disrupts the naturally resistant carbohydrate-lignin shield that limits the accessibility of enzymes to cellulose and hemicellulose.The chemical pretreatment offers high yields and low costs economic success.
22Summary Pretreatment is the key to obtain low costs. Achieve high yield of sugar from biomass with low cost.More study is needed to make a commercial process.It is important to integrate the process.
23SummaryThe Souhteast can be a national leader in biofuel production due its high feedstocks resources.Develop effective policies to accelerate commercialization, improve knowledge of cellulosic conversion and identify new technology.