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Center of research on energy resources & consumption Test Facility for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of two CFB for Ca Looping Systems Luis M Romeo.

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Presentation on theme: "Center of research on energy resources & consumption Test Facility for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of two CFB for Ca Looping Systems Luis M Romeo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Test Facility for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of two CFB for Ca Looping Systems Luis M Romeo Pilar Lisbona, Ana Martínez, Yolanda Lara CIRCE - Center of research on energy resources & consumption 4th International Workshop on In-Situ CO 2 Removal, Imperial College (London), July 2008

2 Center of research on energy resources & consumption INDEX CIRCE description Ca looping cycles Introduction Objectives Test facility description Test plan Energy integration of Ca looping systems Objectives Results

3 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CIRCE description non-profit private organisation, sponsored by R&D in energy and thermal and electrical engineering experience in coal & biomass combustion, plant tests & monitoring, laboratory work, simulation, CFD, conventional (PF) and advanced (FBC, IGCC, co-firing) concepts, CO 2 capture Utility Mining Educational Government

4 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Experience in EC projects: CFB800: Utility Scale CFB for Competitive Coal Power (RFCS 2004, project RFCR-CT ) VISCON: Visual sensing for optimised control of tube bank performance and enhanced lifetime (5th FP, project NNE ) INTCON: Intelligent process control system for biomass fuelled industrial power plants (5th FP, project ENK ) BIOMAX: Maximum biomass use and efficiency in large-scale cofiring (5th FP, project NNE ) CARNO: Development of a carbon-in-ash notification system. (ECSC 2001, project 7220-PR-130) BIOCARD: Global process to improve Cynara cardunculus exploitation for energy applications (6th FP STREP, project SUSTDEV ) CLEAN SELECTIVE: Intelligent monitoring and selective cleaning control of deposits in pulverised coal boilers (RFCS 2005, project RFCR-CT ) Experience in CO 2 projects (National programs): Efficiency improvement and reduction of greenhouse gases in existing power stations (2004) Technical, economical and legal feasibility of technologies for reduction of CO2 emissions from coal ( ) Biomass oxy-co-firing in fluidized bed ( ) CENIT CO2- Spanish national council for RTD in CO2 capture and storage ( )

5 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CIRCE description. Experience in CO 2 issues: Laboratories: Biomass/coal combustion Oxyfuel combustion CFB looping European Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants. CO 2 Spanish Platform. Secretariat (2007)

6 Center of research on energy resources & consumption INDEX CIRCE description Ca looping cycles Introduction Objectives Test facility description Test plan Energy integration of Ca looping systems Objectives Results

7 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Ca looping systems. Introduction Carbonate looping requires the movement of solids between two different reactors: CFB for sorbent carbonation and CO 2 reaction CFB for sorbent regeneration and CO 2 releasing Key factor: sorbent stability after high number of cycles To overcome the loss of sorbent activity two strategies are proposed operating at high purge, operating at high solid internal circulations.

8 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Ca looping systems. Introduction Operation conditions will be defined by a compromise among: purge percentage Increment of cost of fresh sorbent Increment of capture cost high solid circulation relevance of understanding hydrodynamics behavior in the CFBs loop knowledge of pressure drop along the CFB and seals control/variation of Gs as function of independent variables carbonator internal circulation effect Influence on heat transfer in the system Heat transfer coefficient within each reactor: dense bed and freeboard Heat transfer between reactors: Sensible heat in the solids is transferred from calciner to carbonator.

9 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Ca looping systems. Objectives Objectives: Test Facility for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of two CFB for Ca Looping Systems Cold flow and made of Plexiglas for flow visualization Analyze the pressure drop along the two CFB and loop-seals Knowledge of the design/controllability of the system Study the influence of different variables in solid circulation rates Increase carbonator circulation rates to increase capture efficiency Analyze the system performance with design modifications

10 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CFB looping. Description Two Plexiglas risers 4 m height and mm i.d. Recycle systems include: two HE cyclones 80 mm i.d mm height Plexiglas standpipe 177 mm i.d. 300 mm height cylindrical Plexiglas loop-seal return pipe made of translucent flexible plastic. Fluidizing air is supplied by blower nominal flow volume 360 Nm 3 /h nominal pressure of 1365 mm w.c

11 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CFB looping. Description An electric resistance for heating purposes increase calciner fluidizing air temperature and maintain dimensional similarity 1,5m-long electrical resistance of 3x2200W controlled by a PID temperature controller Control valves for fluidizing air (risers and loop-seals) Dynamic pressure measuring and recording system, measurement devices and ancillaries

12 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Ca looping systems. Description Instrumentation 10 inductive differential pressure transducers (Testo 6340) connected by means of 4mm i.d. silicone tubes at different points of the CFB loop, Pressure transducers are protected by a wire net to inhibit entry of powder from the risers 2 temperature measurements at the entrance of fluidizing gas Temperature is measured by a PT100 prior entering the calciner riser 2 hot-wire anemometers to monitor gas velocities. The transmitters output to a multi-channel data-logger Agilent® 34670A (34901A 20-channel general purpose multiplexer) processed by means of the Agilent® software package Solid circulation rate is measured by flow diversion in the return pipe which connects the loop-seals and the bottom bed of the CFB

13 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CFB looping. Description

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17 Center of research on energy resources & consumption CFB looping. Description Test plan CFB´s characterization (carbonator and calciner at different T in ) P= f(h, u r, u ls, Gs, solid inventory, T in, …) Gs= f(u r, u ls, solid inventory, T in, …) CFB loop analysis P= f(h, u r, u ls, Gs, solid inventory, T in, …) Gs= f(u r, u ls, solid inventory, T in, …) CFB with internal recirculation P= f(h, u r, u ls, Gs, solid inventory, T in, …) Gs= f(u r, u ls, solid inventory, T in, …) Cyclone P= f(Gs, …)

18 Center of research on energy resources & consumption INDEX CIRCE description Ca looping cycles Introduction Objectives Test facility description Test plan Energy integration of Ca looping systems Objectives Results

19 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Energy integration of Ca looping systems. Objective Objective design a highly integrated process to capture CO 2 from an existing power plant based on carbonation/calcination cycle retrofit scheme that integrates the energy released by carbonation– calcination capture cycle in a supercritical steam cycle Carbonator (Q 1 ) Flue gases from carbonator (Q 2 ) Flue gases (CO 2 ) from calciner (Q 3 ) Purge (Q 4 )

20 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Energy integration of Ca looping systems. Results Existing supercritical coal power plant without desulphurization unit of MW net output (450.0 MW gross output). Energy integration from: carbonator (Q 1 = 292MWth) flue gases from 650ºC to 150ºC (Q 2 = 232MWth) CO 2 stream from the calciner at 875–950ºC (Q 3 = 163MWt h). solid purge heat exchanger (Q 4 = 33 MWth). Calciner energy requirements 728.6MWth coal mass flow rate of 28.8 kg/s oxygen flow rate of 58.9 kg/s kg/s of near-pure CO 2 Purge of 48.9 kg/s of deactivated CaO, CaSO 4 and ashes

21 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Energy integration of Ca looping systems. Results Carbonator (Q 1 ) Flue gases from carbonator (Q 2 ) Flue gases from calciner (Q 3 ) Purge (Q 4 )

22 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Energy integration of Ca looping systems. Results Live steam is kg/s and avoid the need of an extra boiler Gross power output, 308.5MW. Gross efficiency of 42.51% Three additional heat exchangers have been placed to: Preheat coal, CaCO 3 and oxygen using heat from the hot CO 2 stream, flue gases and CaO purge. Solids are heated up to 130ºC and oxygen up to 80ºC and gases reduce temperature to 130ºC and ashes to 120ºC. Auxiliary consumption: Air separation unit 46.6 MWe 52.8 MWe for new fans, solid and gases circulation, CO 2 compression usual power plant auxiliaries 15.4 MW. Net power output 193.6MWe. Net efficiency 26.68% Original situation: tonCO 2 /h to produce 427.5MWe (0.781 kgCO 2 /net kWh) Integrated system:79.5 tonCO 2 /h to produce 621.1MWe (0.122 kgCO 2 /net kWh)

23 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Test Facility for the Hydrodynamic Characterization of two CFB for Ca Looping Systems Luis M Romeo Pilar Lisbona, Ana Martínez, Yolanda Lara CIRCE - Center of research on energy resources & consumption 4th International Workshop on In-Situ CO2 Removal, Imperial College (London), July, 2008

24 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Biomass oxy-co-firing in fluidized bed ( ) 100 kWt O 2 /CO 2 bubbling fluidized bed

25 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Biomass oxy-co-firing in fluidized bed ( ) 100 kWt O 2 /CO 2 bubbling fluidized bed

26 Center of research on energy resources & consumption Biomass oxy-co-firing in fluidized bed ( ) 100 kWt O 2 /CO 2 bubbling fluidized bed 2.7 m height, 23 cm i.d. FB water cooling 2 x 200 litres for fuel feeding (coal, sorbent, biomass) CO 2 /O 2 mixer and flue gas recirculation Preheating of fluidising gas Gas cleaning: cyclone and fabric filter Recycling ratio: from 0% to 80% O 2 in the mixture: from 20% to 40%

27 Center of research on energy resources & consumption selected, recent papers: Romeo, L.M., Lara, Y., Lisbona, P., Escosa, J.M Optimizing make-up flow in a CO2 capture system using CaO. Chemical Engineering Journal, Accepted for publication (2008) Lisbona, P. Romeo, L.M. Enhanced Coal Gasification Heated by Unmixed Combustion integrated with an Hybrid System of SOFC/GT. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Accepted for publication (2008) Romeo, L.M., Abanades, C., Escosa, J.M., Pano, J., Giménez, A., Sanchez- Biezma, A., Ballesteros, J.C. Oxyfuel carbonation/calcination cycle for low cost CO2 capture in existing power plants. Energy Conversion and Management, doi: /j.enconman (2008) Romeo, L.M., Espatolero, S., Bolea, I. Designing a supercritical steam cycle to integrate the energy requirements of CO2 amine scrubbing. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, doi: /j.ijggc (2008) Romeo, L.M., Bolea, I., y Escosa, J.M. Integration of power plant and amine scrubbing to reduce CO2 capture costs. Applied Thermal Engineering, 28, 1039–1046 (2008) Abanades, J.C., Grasa, G., Alonso, M., Rodriguez, N, Anthony, E.J., Romeo, L.M. Cost Structure of a Postcombustion CO2 Capture System Using CaO. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 15, (2007)

28 Center of research on energy resources & consumption selected, recent papers: Romeo, L.M. y Gareta, R. Fouling Control in Biomass Boiler. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 19, 8, (2006) L. M. Romeo, R. Gareta. Neural Network for Evaluating Boiler Behaviour. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26, 14-15, (2006) R. Gareta, L.M. Romeo, A. Gil. Forecasting of Electricity prices with Neural Networks. Energy Conversion and Management Journal 47, 1770 (2006) J. Pallarés, I Arauzo, L. I. Díez. Numerical prediction of unburned carbon levels in large pulverized coal utility boilers. Fuel 84, 2364 (2005). E. Teruel, C. Cortés, L.I. Díez, I. Arauzo. Monitoring and Prediction of Fouling in Coal-Fired Utility Boilers Using Neural Networks. Chemical Engineering Science 60, 535 (2005) L. I. Díez, C. Cortés, A. Campo. Modelling of pulverized coal boilers: review and validation of on-line simulation techniques. Applied Thermal Engineering 25, 1516 (2005) R. Gareta, L. M. Romeo, A. Gil. Methodology for the economic evaluation of gas turbine air-cooling systems in combined cycle applications. Energy 29, 1805 (2004)


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