Presentation on theme: "Cool Season Vegetables 606-666-2438 ext. 234 130 Robinson Rd. Jackson, KY 41339."— Presentation transcript:
Cool Season Vegetables ext Robinson Rd. Jackson, KY 41339
UK Robinson Center for Appalachian Resource Sustainability 2011 Mountain Monday Series (All programs begin at 6:30 p.m. unless otherwise noted*) *March 14Producing Shiitake Mushrooms April 11Blueberry Production and Pruning May 9Selecting the Right Grasses for Mountain Pastures June 13Food Preservation July 11Pasture Poultry Production August 8Cutting Board Workshop Sept. 12Food Plots for Wildlife Oct. 10Holiday Decorations and Wreath Making Nov. 14Bee Keeping Dec. 12Beginning Quilting For more information call: Ext 231 Website: www2.uky.edu/rcars
Soil Testing Cover Cropping Pollination
When Crops for the Spring Garden – grow best between 50 and 65 degrees. Soil Thermometer available for $7+ Directed seeded BeetsCarrotsCollards KaleLeaf lettuceMustard greens PeasRadishesSpinach Swish chardTurnipsTurnip greens Transplants Asparagus BroccoliBrussels sprouts CabbageCauliflowerOnions Potatoes
Should last for 15+ years, any of the all male hybrid varieties from Rutgers (Jersey__) have good yield potential and disease resistance (Millennium, Purple Passion, Jersey Knight, Jersey Supreme, Atlas, Apollo, Grande) Plant crowns 8-15 apart, rows 4-6 on center. Some newer varieties are only available as seed until supply of crowns increases. Crown rot and rust – avoid wet areas and plant disease resistant varieties Insects – usually not a serious problem
Germinate at 40 F Heirloom varieties may not form large root. More sensitive to acid soil than many vegetables. 1 ounce of seed will do about Require thinning because the seed is really a fruit with several seeds inside it. Diseases not much of a problem unless it is nutrient deficiency (B), acute weather fluctuations will cause zoning in the roots Insects not usually a problem
Plant in mid-April and again in late July-early August, in the row (3 on center) or 10 apart double row 20 between row. Heavy users of sulfur Plant disease free plants in warm soil to help prevent black rot and damping-off, crop rotation is important for all cole crops Insect worms can be a problem
Good crop for the home garden because it will withstand temperatures to 20 F. Plant April 1 st close together (9-12) for smaller heads Harvesting – the firmer heads store better than the softer heads. Diseases – similar to broccoli and Brussels sprouts Insects – loopers and cabbage worms are usually the biggest problems
Germinate about 40 F Plant the shorter varieties unless you have deep, loose soil or a container. Nantes - medium length cylindrical Shipping/Imperator – traditional carrot shape Chantenays – top shaped suitable for clay soil Kuroda type – thick, cylindrical, tend to be darker Carrots are slow to germinate (1-3 weeks). Must be thinned to 2-3 unless using pelleted seed Insects and diseases not a big problem Cover crowns to prevent greening. Nelson one of the best early
Collards Hi- Crop Top BunchFlash HYB Vates Kale Vates Blue Curled Blue Ridge Mustard SavannaSouthern Giant Curled Florida Broadleaf Lettuce Grand RapidsGreen Bay Two Star EnvyRed ExpressBlack Jack Green Salad BowlRed Salad Bowl New Red FireLasting GreenBergams Green Turnips Seven TopTop Star
Can be susceptible to high light and drying out Brassica greens (mizuna, pac choi, mustards) are more attractive to flea beetles so row cover may be beneficial. They also germinate and grow quicker than lettuce. Great for beginning market gardeners, lots of variety or pre-mixes available Spinach, beet greens and chard add weight to a mix Asian greens offer good diversity in color and texture Sorrel and cress add bite to a mix
Kale/collards Easy to grow, not as effected as other cole crops by pests. Kale can be planted in the fall as well. Row covers can help control cabbage worms.
Kohlrabi Plant in mid-April, 4 in the row (1 on center) Similar insect and disease problems to other cole crops Harvest when stems are 3 in diameter. Young leaves can also be eaten like cabbage. Peel off the outer skin and eat the inner flesh raw or cooked.
Easy to grow Plant sets in mid-March Rot can be a problem, root maggots and thrips can be a problem Perennial onion or Egyptian walking onion
Parsnip Related to carrots and require similar soils and growing conditions Slow germination Thin to 3 apart Some people are allergic to the foliage and can develop a sever rash. Long sleeves are recommended. 2 grams of seed ~ 25
Peas planted on 2/17 are up on 3/8 Wont tolerate warm temperature so plant in early spring. A late summer (August) planting is possible if you keep them watered. Like abundant phosphorus Cutworms may be a problem
Early crop for fresh use is planted March/April. The late crop for storage is planted in mid-June. Lots of varieties. Plant certified seed stock. Seed potatoes are cut into pieces with 2-3 eyes per piece. Hilling up is done throughout the season to prevent sun scald. Easy project for kids in a ½-barrel. Harvest early potatoes before mature. Late harvest is two weeks after the vines have died. Diseases can be serious, insects can also be a problem
Easy cool season crop. Grow quickly. Harvest early and often or they become woody and hot. Damping off can be a problem in poorly drained soil The Night of the Radishes is one of the most anticipated celebrations in Oaxaca.
Susceptible to heat damage (over 85 F) Perennial crop that may last for many years. Can be divided every 5 years Harvest begins in the third year. Plant crowns in mid-March 3 feet apart on a well-drained soil. Mulch in the winter and will benefit from yearly addition of well-rotted compost or well-rotted manure. Pull stalks from the base. Remove seed stalks to maintain vigor. Crown rot can be a problem on poorly drained sites. Curly dock weeds can serve as a host for the rhubarb curculio.
Purple Top most common variety Plant seeds in mid-March, 10-12/ft of row Sensitive to too much nitrogen Mildew can be a problem Floating row covers can discourage flea beetles
Plasticulture System Using plastic mulches, drip irrigation, raised beds and/or tunnels to increase returns
Mulch Advantages Earlier production- Soils at 2 depth under clear plastic is up to 14°F warmer, under black plastic is up to 8°F warmer. Spring vegetables - 2 weeks sooner.
If you are going to be putting a cover crop between your beds, put it down before punching holes. Fall vs. Spring - –Spring rains can delay field work. Fall applied mulch can advance the planting date 2 weeks. –More potential for damage over the winter.
High Tunnels and Low Tunnels
Low tunnels 1-mil plastic Hoops of No. 9 wire or ½ -PVC long. (Coils have a natural bend already) Ends 6-8 into the soil Spaced about 4 apart in the row. Slits for ventilation
When As soon as the ground can be worked, if not wet. A high tunnel can extend your season earlier and later. At KYSU, lettuce, beets, radish and spinach were planted in mid- January and were ready to harvest by late March. The season can be extended later in the year as well. Michael Bomford and Anthony Silvernail Energy and Capital Costs of High Tunnel Construction. ASHS Annual Conference, HortScience 41: 1077.