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The principles of training

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1 The principles of training

2 A training programme To develop and use a safe and effective training programme, you will need to use the principles of training as set out in your syllabus. These are Overload Specificity Progression Individual differences Variation Reversibility Frequency Intensity Time Type

3 Overload To improve the body’s systems a training programme must show overload. Without overload, the athlete will simply maintain the same level. Overload must be gradual. This means that an athlete should work harder than they are used to in order to improve. The body has to adapt to the increase in training, and this causes improvement in the bodies systems. You can add overload in a number of ways How often you train – Add a training session How hard you train – Work harder in the training sessions Duration – Increase how long you train for.

4 Overload must be gradual
Overload must be gradual. If you add too much too soon, you will cause injury. Overload Look at these examples – How could you provide overload for these people? Norbert – Leads a sedentary life and hasn’t done any exercise for three years. Geoff – goes for a run three times a week for twenty minutes. He runs at about 60% of his maximum speed. Sharon – goes weight training 5 times a week. She does 20 exercises, 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 50% of her maximum weight.

5 Specificity Any gain in fitness will be specific to the muscles or system to which the overload is applied. For example an athlete who trains by running for 20 minutes three times a week will see improvements to aerobic endurance, muscular endurance and body composition in the muscles that work in running. They will not develop other areas such as power or flexibility. By training for running, they may not help if they want to develop fitness for cycling. The key to being specific, is to make sure that a training programme has clear goals.

6 Specificity How could you make a training programme specific for the following individuals?: Norbert – Wants to improve his strength and lose a bit of weight. Geoff – Used to play a lot of football and has decided he wants to play again next season. Sharon – Wants to move on the next level and become a international sprinter.

7 Progression Progression is a steady increase in the overload of a training programme. The important element is being gradual in the overload; Too much overload = injury Too little overload = little or no improvement. You can increase frequency, intensity and duration of exercise gradually to bring about progression.

8 Individual Differences
To be successful a training programme must look at the individual athlete. Athletes will have different objectives So collecting information and setting short, medium and long term goals, as well as SMART targets is essential. Athletes will have different preferences Some will prefer different exercises or training methods to others. Athletes improve at different rates This can be due to their genetic make up

9 Variation A training programme needs to be varied, so that the athlete doesn’t become bored. Try to change the training methods or style at least every 2 weeks to keep the athlete interested.

10 Reversibility This principle states that if fitness is not used regularly, then the body will revert back to its previous level of fitness. The rule use it or lose it would be a good indication of this principle. Rest, however, is essential. A training programme will need to have some rest periods each week, in order to allow the body to recover and consolidate the adaptations to training.

11 The F.I.T.T. principle Frequency – refers to how often the athlete will train in each week, month or year. Beginners – 2-3 sessions per week. Can increase to more than this after 3 months Health and fitness – Training should not exceed 5 days a week. This allows recovery time Elite athlete – 6 or 7 days a week. – Daley Thompson famously had one day off per year – Christmas day!

12 The F.I.T.T. principle Intensity – refers to how hard the athlete works in each session or repetition. It is usually expressed as a percentage of maximum. For example in weight training – 60% of the maximum weight you can lift. For aerobic events this is often expressed as a percentage of Maximum Heart Rate (220-Age) Intensity can be increased by adding more weight, or increasing the speed for running or cycling, for examples.

13 The F.I.T.T. principle Intensity principles.
To develop Aerobic endurance – work at approx 60% of max heart rate So for a 20 year old this would be 120 bpm (60% of MHR 200bpm) To develop Strength – work at around % of Maximum weights, but for only a few repetitions and sets To develop Muscular Endurance – work at around 60% of max weights/resistance for 15 repetitions in 3 sets. To develop power – Work at 70-80% of Maximum weight/resistance To develop speed – Work at % of max speed when running, or doing weights.

14 The F.I.T.T. principle Time – Refers to how long each training session lasts for. To improve aerobic fitness, training should last for a minimum of 20 minutes, for examples

15 The F.I.T.T. principle Type refers to the type of training in the training programme. This can depend on a number of things, such as Athlete preferences Athlete objectives Equipment available Time of year Time available

16 Periodisation Periodisation is designed to help
At the end of this unit, you need to create a 6 week training programme. As such it is one mesocycle made up of 6 microcycles, that fits into a macrocycle. Is all about a structured cycle of training. It is normally split into 3 parts Macrocycle – 1-4 year training cycle Mesocycle – 4-15 week training cycle Microcycle – weekly or individual training sessions. Periodisation is designed to help Reduce chances of injury Increase chances of peaking at the big tournaments Improve recovery from training

17 The different cycles vary depending on the sport and the type of athlete. For example:
Periodisation Try to match the different statements below with the mesocycles on the left: Developing a base level of fitness – strength and aerobic Rest and recovery Drills and Organisation Maintaining a mix of drills organisation and fitness levels. Level mix of fitness, drills and tactical awareness. For a football player: Macrocycle is one year. It splits into: Mesocycle 1 – Pre season Mesocycle 2 – Early season Mesocycle 3 – Mid season Mesocycle 4 – Late season Mesocycle 5 – Off season Each mesocycle splits into microcycles that build up to weekly or twice weekly matches.

18 Periodisation Periodisation in Netball

19 Periodisation For an Olympic rower, A macrocycle is four years.
They would still have Mesocycles of 4-15 weeks, focussing on different aspects of training. These may be: Strength Power Muscular endurance Rest Competition – They have annual world championships, and would try to peak for these. However, their main focus would be the next Olympic Games. Periodisation

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