2 DefinedVariations in training specificity, intensity, and volume organized in planned periods or cycles within an overall programProposed in 1960’s by Leo MatveyevMay include various forms of exerciseGeneral ConditioningSport-Specific ActivitiesResistance Training
3 General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Canadian biologist Hans Selye3 PhasesAlarm PhaseBody experiences a new or more intense stressMay last several days or several weeksUsually results in excessive soreness & drop in performanceResistance PhaseBody adapts to the stimulus and returns to “normal”Neurological and muscular adaptations occurLead to increased performanceSometimes referred to as “supercompensation”
4 General Adaptation Syndrome Exhaustion PhaseOccurs if stress persists for extended periodsAlarm phase markers may be indicated (fatigue, soreness)Athlete loses the ability to adapt to stressorsOnset may be caused by non-training related stressPerformanceResistance PhaseExhaustion PhaseAlarm PhaseTime
5 Cycles Macrocycle Mesocycles Microcycles Usually one training year, but can span up to 4Mesocycles2 or more of these within a MacrocycleMay last several weeks to several monthsMicrocyclesTypically 1 week, but can last up to 4
6 Planning the Periods Major Mesocycles of Training (Matveyev) PreparatoryFirst Transition (added later)CompetitionSecond Transition (Active Rest)VolumeNOVICE ATHLETE MACROCYCLEIntensityTechniquePreparatory PhaseFirst TransitionCompetitionSecond Transition
7 Mesocycles Defined - Preparatory Preparatory PeriodUsually the longest periodOccurs during “down time” (no competitions)Very few skill practicesEmphasize basic conditioningConsists of three mini-phasesExamples?
8 Preparatory Period Breakdown Hypertrophy/Endurance PhaseEarly stages of preparatory period1 to 6 weeksHigh Volume/Low Intensity3-6 sets of % 1RMBasic Strength PhaseMiddle stage of prep. PeriodFew weeksModerate Volume/High Intensity2-5 sets of % 1RMStrength/Power PhaseFinal Prep. StageLow Volume/High Intensity3-5 sets of % 1RM
9 Mesoscycles Defined – 1st Transition Included to denote the break between high-volume training and high-intensity trainingThe point where intensity/volume crossoverImportant to minimize distractionsMaximize athlete focus
10 Mesocycles Defined - Competition The goal is to peak strength and powerIncrease intensity/Decrease volumeIn-Season TrainingPeak only lasts a few weeksMaintain strength for the season with moderate volume/intensityPractice in skill technique increases rapidlyTime spent conditioning decreases1-3 sets of 1-3 ≥93% 1RMExamples?
11 Mesocycles Defined – 2nd Transition Between competitive season and next macrocycleActive rest or restoration1 to 4 weeksRecreational activity that may not involve resistance training
12 Designing Macrocycles When are the planned periods?Off-season (Preparatory)Preseason (First Transition)In-Season (Competition)Considerations for long seasonsMaintenance vs. Undulating MicrocyclesPost-Season (Second Transition)
13 DiscussionHow would different sports necessitate adjustments in periodization?Examples?What about sports with multiple games in a given week?ExamplesHow do you monitor progress and evaluate periodization effectiveness from one season to the next?
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