2DefinedVariations in training specificity, intensity, and volume organized in planned periods or cycles within an overall programProposed in 1960’s by Leo MatveyevMay include various forms of exerciseGeneral ConditioningSport-Specific ActivitiesResistance Training
3General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Canadian biologist Hans Selye3 PhasesAlarm PhaseBody experiences a new or more intense stressMay last several days or several weeksUsually results in excessive soreness & drop in performanceResistance PhaseBody adapts to the stimulus and returns to “normal”Neurological and muscular adaptations occurLead to increased performanceSometimes referred to as “supercompensation”
4General Adaptation Syndrome Exhaustion PhaseOccurs if stress persists for extended periodsAlarm phase markers may be indicated (fatigue, soreness)Athlete loses the ability to adapt to stressorsOnset may be caused by non-training related stressPerformanceResistance PhaseExhaustion PhaseAlarm PhaseTime
5Cycles Macrocycle Mesocycles Microcycles Usually one training year, but can span up to 4Mesocycles2 or more of these within a MacrocycleMay last several weeks to several monthsMicrocyclesTypically 1 week, but can last up to 4
6Planning the Periods Major Mesocycles of Training (Matveyev) PreparatoryFirst Transition (added later)CompetitionSecond Transition (Active Rest)VolumeNOVICE ATHLETE MACROCYCLEIntensityTechniquePreparatory PhaseFirst TransitionCompetitionSecond Transition
7Mesocycles Defined - Preparatory Preparatory PeriodUsually the longest periodOccurs during “down time” (no competitions)Very few skill practicesEmphasize basic conditioningConsists of three mini-phasesExamples?
8Preparatory Period Breakdown Hypertrophy/Endurance PhaseEarly stages of preparatory period1 to 6 weeksHigh Volume/Low Intensity3-6 sets of % 1RMBasic Strength PhaseMiddle stage of prep. PeriodFew weeksModerate Volume/High Intensity2-5 sets of % 1RMStrength/Power PhaseFinal Prep. StageLow Volume/High Intensity3-5 sets of % 1RM
9Mesoscycles Defined – 1st Transition Included to denote the break between high-volume training and high-intensity trainingThe point where intensity/volume crossoverImportant to minimize distractionsMaximize athlete focus
10Mesocycles Defined - Competition The goal is to peak strength and powerIncrease intensity/Decrease volumeIn-Season TrainingPeak only lasts a few weeksMaintain strength for the season with moderate volume/intensityPractice in skill technique increases rapidlyTime spent conditioning decreases1-3 sets of 1-3 ≥93% 1RMExamples?
11Mesocycles Defined – 2nd Transition Between competitive season and next macrocycleActive rest or restoration1 to 4 weeksRecreational activity that may not involve resistance training
12Designing Macrocycles When are the planned periods?Off-season (Preparatory)Preseason (First Transition)In-Season (Competition)Considerations for long seasonsMaintenance vs. Undulating MicrocyclesPost-Season (Second Transition)
13DiscussionHow would different sports necessitate adjustments in periodization?Examples?What about sports with multiple games in a given week?ExamplesHow do you monitor progress and evaluate periodization effectiveness from one season to the next?