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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 4 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 4 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 4 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Health

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Health Health, Illness, and Disease Nutrition and Eating Behavior Exercise Substance Use and Addiction

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Bio-Psycho-Social Health Model Asia and Greece: ancient physicians believed good habits essential to good health New model that health is best understood in terms of – Biological Factors – Psychological Factors – Social Factors Health, Illness, and Disease

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Children's Health In last 50 years – Shift toward prevention and outpatient care – Vaccines prevent many diseases – Childrens motor, cognitive, and socio-emotional development makes health care needs unique – Caregivers play important role Poverty is a special concern – Approximately 11 million preschool children in U.S. malnourished Health, Illness, and Disease

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Recommended Immunization Schedule of Normal Infants and Children Health, Illness, and Disease Fig mos, 4-6 yrs 15 months 1 year years years 6 months Age 4 months 2 months Tetanus-diphtheria Diphtheria, Polio Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Influenza TB test Diphtheria, Influenza Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza Immunization Measles, Mumps, Rubella Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescents' Health A Critical Juncture in Health – Many factors linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence – Families, peers, schools influence health Health Services – Use private physician services at lower rate than other age groups; lowest use by older males Health, Illness, and Disease

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Young Adults' Health Most have few chronic health problems Know how to stay healthy but adopt unhealthy lifestyles Many college students unrealistic, overly optimistic about future health risks Hidden dangers in peaks of performance and health in early adulthood Health, Illness, and Disease

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender, Health, and the Health-Care System Women and men experience health and health-care system differently – Males may use health care inadequately – Special concerns for womens health issues Medicine male-dominated profession Gender bias affects medical research – Most research conducted with men Health, Illness, and Disease

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chronic Disorders Characterized by slow onset, long duration Gender differences – Fatal chronic disorders affect men more – Nonfatal chronic disorders affect women more Socioeconomic differences – Poor older adults 3 times more likely than non-poor to be limited by chronic disorder Health, Illness, and Disease

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Increasing Disabilities with Age Health, Illness, and Disease Fig. 4.2

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Osteoporosis Aging disorder involving extensive bone tissue loss – Related to calcium deficiencies Gender differences 80% of cases women – Affects 2/3 of women over age 60 – Common in white, thin, small-framed women Diet, exercise, weightlifting can help Health, Illness, and Disease

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Alzheimer's Disease Dementia global term; Alzheimer is one form Progressive, irreversible brain disorder with gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, eventually, physical function – Rate increasing in U.S.; no cure – Causes not fully identified; early and late onset – Healthy lifestyle, medication can slow progression Health, Illness, and Disease

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Alzheimer's Disease – Early detection: MCI and special brain scans – Caring for patients is exhausting, some respite care available Parkinson disease – Another type of dementia, no cure – Chronic and progressive, triggered by loss of dopamine production in brain – Medication available, loses effect over time Health, Illness, and Disease

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Robust Oldest-Old Persons 80 years and older – Frail image fueled by media A substantial subgroup of oldest old are robust and active – Less than 60% have a disability – Health care and medical treatment can improve functioning, provide intervention Health, Illness, and Disease

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Health Treatment for Older Adults Probability of living in nursing home increases with age Quality varies enormously – 1/3 are seriously deficient; cause for national concern, fail inspections Home health care, elder-care centers, preventative medicine good alternatives Health, Illness, and Disease

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Percentage of U.S. Older Adults of Different Ages In Nursing Homes Health, Illness, and Disease Fig. 4.4

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Health Treatment for Older Adults Important factors for residents – Feelings of control and self-determination – Alert, responsive, caring staff – Effective coping skills – Opportunities to make choices – Positive staff, absent of stereotyping beliefs – Active role in medical encounters Health, Illness, and Disease

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Perceived Control and Mortality Health, Illness, and Disease Fig. 4.5

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Infancy Breastfeeding versus Bottle-Feeding Benefits of breastfeeding: Nutrition and Eating Behavior –Denser bones in childhood –Reduced risk of SIDS –Advanced neurological, cognitive development –Better vision –Appropriate weight gain –Lowered risk of childhood obesity –Fewer allergies, lower risk of illnesses

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Infancy When breastfeeding is avoided – Physical difficulties – Lifestyle conditions – HIV virus Poor, developing countries – Few or no alternatives – Unsanitary health risks – Death rates linked to bottle-feeding Nutrition and Eating Behavior

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. U.S. Breastfeeding Trends Fig. 4.6 Nutrition and Eating Behavior

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Malnutrition in Infancy Marasmus wasting away of body tissues in first year; severe protein-calorie deficiency Kwashiorkor deficiency in protein; childs abdomen and feet swollen with water Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development – Lowest SES groups benefited most Nutrition and Eating Behavior

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Nutrition in Childhood Poor nutrition is special concern for many low-income children in U.S. – Children showed more aggression, hyperactive and excessive motor behaviors Positive influences on nutrition and health – WIC program linked to reduced risk of obesity Malnutrition threatens many in developing countries during childhood Nutrition and Eating Behavior

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Most childrens diets need improvement – Eating away from home, high fat foods Good diet can have long-term effects – Basal metabolism rate (BMR) minimal amount of energy a person uses in a resting state - suggest how much to eat – Include low fat foods, milk, vegetables, eaten with family away from TV Nutrition and Eating Behavior

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Childhood Obesity Consequences of Obesity – Increases childs risk of medical problems – Low self-esteem and depression common; has links to bullying Treatment of Obesity – Diet – Exercise – Behavior modification Problem among adolescents Nutrition and Eating Behavior

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Increase in Overweight U.S. Adolescents Nutrition and Eating Behavior Fig. 4.8

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity and Overweight in U.S. Adolescents Nutrition and Eating Behavior Fig. 4.9

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Eating disorders Anorexia Nervosa relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation – Most are white females from well-educated, middle- and upper-income families – Competitive families, high achievement goals – Media and American culture fashion image Bulimia Nervosa individual consistently follows a binge-purge eating pattern Nutrition and Eating Behavior

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adult Development and Aging Obesity – Heredity and environmental influences – Health problems increasing Dieting – Restrained eating individuals who chronically restrict food intake to control their weight – Concern for fad diets and obsession with thinness – Most effective programs include exercise – Harms and benefits of various diets Nutrition and Eating Behavior

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Questions About Aging and Nutrition Food Restriction and Longevity – Food-restricted animals live longer, healthier lives – Leaner men live longer, healthier lives – Increase in body mass linked to earlier death The Vitamin-and-Aging Controversy – Antioxidant supplements may slow aging process, improve health of older adults; still controversial – Vitamin supplements help cognitive performance Nutrition and Eating Behavior

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Childhood and Adolescence Concern: lack of exercise and obesity – Boys more physically active at all ages than girls – Effects of TV watching, computers, video games – Childhood habits continue in adolescence Getting children and adolescents to exercise – More physical activity programs at school – Plan community and school exercise activities – Encourage families to focus on physical activity Exercise

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Exercise in Adulthood Moderate and intense exercise may produce important physical and psychological gains – Prevention of heart disease, live longer – Aerobic exercise: sustained activity that stimulates heart and lung functioning (e.g. jogging, cycling) – Exercising enough to burn more than 2,000 calories a week can cut risk of heart attack by two-thirds Exercise

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ways to Get Yourself to Exercise More Reduce TV time Chart your progress Get rid of excuses – Eliminate I dont have time by making exercise a priority Imagine the alternative Learn more about exercise Exercise

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Aging and Longevity Exercise benefits: –Related to preventing and treating disability –Counteract side effects of standard medical care, improve quality- of-life and outcomes –Linked to increased longevity Exercise –Minimize physiological changes in aging, health –Optimize body composition –Related to prevention of common chronic diseases –Associated with improved treatment of diseases

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Physical Fitness and Mortality Exercise Fig. 4.12

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Drugs, Health, and Addiction Long menu of psychoactive drugs used around the world –Alcohol use: religion, gender, nationality –Cultural acceptability of substance abuse is no measure of safety –Alcohol and cigarettes pose serious health and development risks for adolescents and adults –Secondhand smoke Exercise

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Addiction Pattern of behavior characterized by overwhelming involvement with using a drug and securing its supply – Psychological dependence – Physiological dependence – Withdrawal symptoms Whether addictions are diseases is matter of controversy Substance Use and Addiction

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Addiction Disease model Biologically-based Lifelong disease that involves loss of control over behavior Requires medical and/or spiritual treatment Promoted by medical profession and AA Substance Use and Addiction Life-process model Habitual response and source of gratification and security Can only be understood in context of persons lives, social relationships, experiences, and environments

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Trends in Drug Use By U.S. Eighth-, Tenth-, and Twelfth-Grade Students Substance Use and Addiction Fig. 4.13

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Alcohol and Cigarettes Drinking has declined among U.S. adolescents, but rates still high – 19 percent of eighth graders, 48 percent of high school seniors drank in past 30 days – Binge drinking, mostly males Smoking has declined heavily – Prices, anti-tobacco ads, social disapproval – Can cause permanent genetic lung changes Roles of parents and peers Substance Use and Addiction

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fatal Lung Cancer and Years Since Quitting Smoking Substance Use and Addiction Fig. 4.15

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Substance Abuse in Adulthood Smoking and lung cancer risk decreasing; cigarette and cigar smoking still a concern Alcohol use remains accepted part of U.S. culture – Half of all college students drink heavily – Binge drinkers and reported problems – College students drink more than youths ending education after high school Substance Use and Addiction

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Substance Abuse in Adulthood Patterns of use – Persons not attending college smoke more – Singles use marijuana more than marrieds – Singles and divorced persons drink more – Engagement or marriage reduces alcohol use – Drug use lower among regular church attendees Substance Use and Addiction

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Binge Drinking in the Adolescence Early Adulthood Transition Substance Use and Addiction Fig. 4.16

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Age and Binge Drinking Substance Use and Addiction Fig. 4.17

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Substance Abuse in Older Adults Alcohol Use Declines – Majority of 65 and over abstain completely Invisible Epidemic of illicit and prescription drug abuse that goes undetected – Multiple medications – Mixing medicines with alcohol – Consequences may be attributed to other medical or psychological conditions Substance Use and Addiction

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 4


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