Presentation on theme: "Modules 3-1/4-2/4-3 Stress & Promoting Health. Adult Health Immune System Capacity declines after age 20, partially due to thymus and inability to produce."— Presentation transcript:
Modules 3-1/4-2/4-3 Stress & Promoting Health
Adult Health Immune System Capacity declines after age 20, partially due to thymus and inability to produce mature T cells Stress and depression can also weaken the immune system
Adult Health - States of Mind Western stereotype: deterioration is inevitable In one study, people with positive self-perceptions of aging live 7 ½ years longer More optimistic elders are about capacity to cope with physical challenge, better they are at overcoming threats to health Low SES elders are less likely to believe they can control their health, to seek medical treatment, or to follow doctors’ orders.
Taking Care of Yourself in Adulthood Nutrition/obesity Exercise Substance Abuse
Nutrition – Obesity in Adulthood 20-25% of American adults are obese. Rate has doubled since Another 41% are overweight. Many people show large weight gains between ages 25 and 40 as BMR declines.
Nutrition – Obesity in Adulthood Adult obesity correlated with increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, & cardiovascular disease May be a genetic propensity for obesity. It tends to run in families. (May also be learned eating patterns.)
Nutrition Adult Dieting People who lost weight and maintain the loss become less depressed and reduce health risks. Studies comparing weight-loss programs shows about equal effectiveness. The most effective programs include exercise. Yo-Yo dieting may increase health risks.
Caloric Restriction & Longevity Animals fed a low-calorie, but otherwise nutritious diet live as much as 40% longer. Chronic problems such as high cholesterol appear later. No one really knows why this increases the lifespan.
Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging Those who take supplements show improved health & physical functioning Protein supplements may increase muscle mass Taking prescription drugs changes nutritional needs, rates of absorption Effective doses, side-effects not known
Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging Antioxidants (A,C, beta carotene) may slow aging & improve older adult health Vitamin C deficiency associated with earlier death Vitamin E associated with reduced heart risk Calcium, vitamin D delay osteoporosis. Zinc, B 6, C, and E improve immune function B vitamins improve cognitive function
Exercise - Adulthood Only 15-20% of Americans get 20 minutes of exercise 5 times per week. Experts recommend that adults engage in 45 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most or all days. Some experts stress aerobic exercise – sustained activity that stimulates heart & lung function (jogging, cycling, swimming)
Exercise & Longevity In one study, people who were less fit were more likely to die during the 8-year course of the study. In another study of people in their 40s to the 80s, beginning an exercise program was associated with a 23% lower risk of death.
Benefits of Exercise enhances the immune system. reduces body fat and builds muscle. linked with reduced rates of cancer, especially colon cancer. strengthens the heart muscle and produces HDL cholesterol reduces anxiety and depression, improves mood, and enhances alertness and energy.
Exercise & Aging Strength training as well as aerobic exercise is recommended for older adults. Endurance training produces gains in vital capacity to age 80 (oldest tested). Weight-bearing exercise promotes muscle size and strength, blood flow to muscles to age 90 (oldest tested). Exercise increases blood circulation to the brain & reduces cognitive declines.
Exercise & Aging (Singh, 2000) Minimizes aging, contributes to health Optimize body composition (muscle v. fat) Prevents common diseases Improves treatment of some diseases Helps prevent & treat disabilities Counteracts side-effects of standard medical care Linked to increased longevity
Theories of Aging
Biological Theories of Aging Cellular clock (Hayflick) cell divisions, based on telomeres 120-year lifespan Free-radical Calorie restriction antioxidants
Biological Theories of Aging Mitochondrial Cellular energy producers Linked to free radical theory Hormonal Stress hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Stress & decline in immune function