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Modules 3-1/4-2/4-3 Stress & Promoting Health. Adult Health Immune System  Capacity declines after age 20, partially due to thymus and inability to produce.

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Presentation on theme: "Modules 3-1/4-2/4-3 Stress & Promoting Health. Adult Health Immune System  Capacity declines after age 20, partially due to thymus and inability to produce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modules 3-1/4-2/4-3 Stress & Promoting Health

2 Adult Health Immune System  Capacity declines after age 20, partially due to thymus and inability to produce mature T cells  Stress and depression can also weaken the immune system

3 Adult Health - States of Mind  Western stereotype: deterioration is inevitable  In one study, people with positive self-perceptions of aging live 7 ½ years longer  More optimistic elders are about capacity to cope with physical challenge, better they are at overcoming threats to health  Low SES elders are less likely to believe they can control their health, to seek medical treatment, or to follow doctors’ orders.

4 Taking Care of Yourself in Adulthood  Nutrition/obesity  Exercise  Substance Abuse

5 Nutrition – Obesity in Adulthood  20-25% of American adults are obese. Rate has doubled since  Another 41% are overweight.  Many people show large weight gains between ages 25 and 40 as BMR declines.

6 Nutrition – Obesity in Adulthood  Adult obesity correlated with increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, & cardiovascular disease  May be a genetic propensity for obesity. It tends to run in families. (May also be learned eating patterns.)

7 Nutrition Adult Dieting  People who lost weight and maintain the loss become less depressed and reduce health risks.  Studies comparing weight-loss programs shows about equal effectiveness.  The most effective programs include exercise.  Yo-Yo dieting may increase health risks.

8 Caloric Restriction & Longevity  Animals fed a low-calorie, but otherwise nutritious diet live as much as 40% longer.  Chronic problems such as high cholesterol appear later.  No one really knows why this increases the lifespan.

9 Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging  Those who take supplements show improved health & physical functioning  Protein supplements may increase muscle mass  Taking prescription drugs changes nutritional needs, rates of absorption  Effective doses, side-effects not known

10 Nutrition: Vitamins & Aging  Antioxidants (A,C, beta carotene) may slow aging & improve older adult health  Vitamin C deficiency associated with earlier death  Vitamin E associated with reduced heart risk  Calcium, vitamin D delay osteoporosis.  Zinc, B 6, C, and E improve immune function  B vitamins improve cognitive function

11 Exercise - Adulthood  Only 15-20% of Americans get 20 minutes of exercise 5 times per week.  Experts recommend that adults engage in 45 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most or all days.  Some experts stress aerobic exercise – sustained activity that stimulates heart & lung function (jogging, cycling, swimming)

12 Exercise & Longevity  In one study, people who were less fit were more likely to die during the 8-year course of the study.  In another study of people in their 40s to the 80s, beginning an exercise program was associated with a 23% lower risk of death.

13 Benefits of Exercise  enhances the immune system.  reduces body fat and builds muscle.  linked with reduced rates of cancer, especially colon cancer.  strengthens the heart muscle and produces HDL cholesterol  reduces anxiety and depression, improves mood, and enhances alertness and energy.

14 Exercise & Aging  Strength training as well as aerobic exercise is recommended for older adults.  Endurance training produces gains in vital capacity to age 80 (oldest tested).  Weight-bearing exercise promotes muscle size and strength, blood flow to muscles to age 90 (oldest tested).  Exercise increases blood circulation to the brain & reduces cognitive declines.

15 Exercise & Aging (Singh, 2000)  Minimizes aging, contributes to health  Optimize body composition (muscle v. fat)  Prevents common diseases  Improves treatment of some diseases  Helps prevent & treat disabilities  Counteracts side-effects of standard medical care  Linked to increased longevity

16 Theories of Aging

17 Biological Theories of Aging  Cellular clock (Hayflick)  cell divisions, based on telomeres  120-year lifespan  Free-radical  Calorie restriction  antioxidants

18 Biological Theories of Aging  Mitochondrial  Cellular energy producers  Linked to free radical theory  Hormonal Stress  hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis  Stress & decline in immune function


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