7 Mortality rate of diarrhea patients with malnutrition is fourfold of the diarrhea patients without malnutrition.
8 FOR EVALUATION OF MALNUTRITION INDICATORSFOR EVALUATION OF MALNUTRITION an accurate dietary history evaluation of present deviations from average height, weight, head circumference, and past rates of growth comparative measurements of midarm circumference and skinfold thickness chemical and other tests
9 FOR EVALUATION OF MALNUTRITION CLINICAL INDICATORSFOR EVALUATION OF MALNUTRITION weight-for-age (underweight): weight is lower than -2SD of mean value of the reference population of the same age and sex height-for-age (stunting): height is lower than-2SD of mean value of the reference population of the same age and sex weight-for-height (wasting): weight is lower than -2SD of mean value of the reference population of the same height and sex
10 About the Reference Population in different countries The reference population from your own country NCHS-CDC-WHO Reference Population (1976 and 2006) Reference: De Onis M, Habicht JP. Anthropometric reference data for international use: recommendations from a World Health Organization Expert Committee [J]. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996, 64(4):
12 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Failure to gain weight or loss of weightThin, subcutaneous fat reduced or despaired（orderly abdomen, buttocks, limb and finally face）Disturbulence of functions of organs
13 MARASMUS(Infantile Atrophy, energy-deficiency or energy-protein deficiency)
14 ETIOLOGY Inadequate caloric intake: insufficiency of diet, improper feeding habits Metabolic abnormalities or congenital malformationsSevere impairment of any body systemmay result in malnutrition
17 Failure to gain weight followed by loss of weight until emaciation results Loss of turgor in skin which becomes wrinkled and loose as subcutaneous fat disappears Edema
18 Low temperature and slow pulse Reduced basal metabolic rate Fretful or listless Diminished appetite and constipation followed by the so-called starvation type of diarrhea, with frequent, small stools containing mucus
19 Emaciation Skin wrinkled Subcutaneous fat disappears from abdomen first, then extremities, and finally face
20 PROTEIN MALNUTRITION(PCM or PEM, Protein-Calorie (Energy) Malnutrition,Kwashiorkor)
21 ETIOLOGY deficient intake of protein of good biologic value impaired absorption of protein, as in chronic diarrheal states abnormal losses of protein in proteinuria Infection hemorrhage or burns failure of protein synthesis, as in chronic liver diseases
22 KWASHIORKOR a clinical syndrome resulted from a severe deficiency of protein & inadequate caloric intake the most serious and prevalent form in industrially underdeveloped areas “deposed child” may become evident from early infancy to 5 yr of age, usually after weaning height and weight are accelerated with treatment but never equal those of consistently well-nourished children.
24 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Early clinical evidence----vague, including lethargy, apathy, and irritability Inadequate growth, lack of stamina, loss of muscular tissue, increased susceptibility to infections, and edema Dermatitis and dyspigmentation Secondary immunodeficiency Anorexia, flabbiness of subcutaneous tissues, and loss of muscle tone
25 Lethargy, apathy Inadequate growth, loss of muscular tissue Infections, and edema and dermatitis Flabbiness of subcutaneous tissues, and loss of muscle tone
26 Liver enlargement early or late Fatty infiltration Edema usually develops early (failure to gain weight may be masked by edema, which is often present in internal organs before it can be recognized in the face and limbs) Renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and renal tubular function are decreased The heart may be small in the early stages and enlarged later
27 LABORATORY DATA Concentration of serum albumin decreased Aminoaciduria Ketonuria in the early stage Low blood glucose values Potassium and magnesium deficiencies Amylase, esterase, transaminase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, pancreatic enzymes decreased normocytic, microcytic, or macrocytic Anemia Bone growth delayed and GH increased
28 Diagnosis The feeding history Low body weight, loss of muscular tissue and disturbances of system functionsLaboratory dataExcluding other diseases
29 Comparing with children in the same age group (or height) and sex: Underweight: weight for age is lower than -2SD Stunting: height for age is lower than -2SD Wasting: weight for height is lower than -2SDOne or two or three may present to one child. Having any one of the three, the child can be diagnosed malnutrition.
30 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Protein deprivation: chronic infections, diseases in which there is an excessive loss of protein through urine or stool The diseases of metabolic inability to synthesize protein
31 PREVENTION Diet containing an adequate quantity of protein of good biologic quality Adequate dietary instruction and food distribution Treatment of diseases
32 TREATMENTImmediate management of any acute problems such as those of severe diarrhea, renal failure, and shock and, ultimately, the replacement of missing nutrients are essential.
33 DEHYDRATION For mild to moderate dehydration, feedings are administered orally or by nasogastric tube, when culturally appropriate, to prevent aspiration. A breasted infant should be nursed as often as he of she wants. For severe dehydration, intravenous (IV) fluids are necessary
34 MILK When dehydration is corrected, oral or nasogastric feeding starts with small, frequent feeds of dilute milk (66 kcal and 1.0g protein/100 ml at ~120/ml/kg/24 hr) with nutrient supplementation;
35 Strength and volume are gradually increased and frequency decreased over the next 5-7 days; By day 6-8, the child should receive 150 ml/kg/24 hr in ~6 feeds of high-energy milk (114 kcal and 4.1 g protein /100 ml). Cow’s milk, or yogurt for the lactose-intolerant child, should be made with 50 g of sugar/L.
36 ANTIBIOTICSThe routine administration of antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole has also been advocated. Other antimicrobials are used only to treat overt infection because of concerns about emergence of microbial resistance.
37 Vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin A, potassium, and magnesium, are necessary from the outset of treatment. Iron and folic acid usually correct the anemia.
38 CHILD MANUTRITION —— Multiple choices What are the factors contributing to malnutrition?Deficient supply of foodPoor dietary habitsFood faddism and emotional factorsCertain metabolic abnormalitiesThe indicators for evaluation of nutritional status are:Weight for ageHeight for ageWeight for height24hr creatinine excretion
39 CHILD MANUTRITION —— Multiple choices The lower weight for height indicates:The child has acute malnutritionThe child is stuntedThe child is wastedThe child is normalProtein reserves in malnourished child are assessed from:Serum albuminTransferringHemoglobinPrealbuminHigh density lipid protein