Learning objectives : Definitions related to nutrition Food functions Body Chemical Composition Nutrients Main Functions Food Components
Nutrition science: It is the science which deal with study of food, and it is nature and function of the body under different condition of age health and disease. Nutrition: The process by which the human intakes food for growth, energy, and replacement of tissues; its successive stages include digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Nutrients : Components or chemical substance which form the food, that provides nourishment for growth or metabolism, These substances are essential for growth and maintenance (protein), supply energy (carbohydrate,Fats, protein),regulate the physiological functions (Vitamins, Minerals and water). Definitions related to nutrition
Food : Material, usually of plant or animal source, that contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals, and is ingested and assimilated by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth, and maintain life. Nutritive Value: Is the amount of the nutrients which consist the food, determined by using : 1- Lab Food analysis 2- Food analysis tables Nutritional requirements: The amounts of nutrient which are needed for covering the human needs to be healthy, depend on age, sex, and a few other factors.
Nutritional status : The state of the body with respect to each nutrient and to the overall state of the body weight and condition. The nutritional status assessment by: 1.Anthropometric Measurements 2.Biochemical Investigations 3.Clinical examination 4.Community nutritional status :Vital statistics Nutritional Status Classes : 1.Normal Nutritional status: The nutrients intake suitable in quality and quantity 2.Excess Nutritional Status: The nutrients intake more than body needs in quality, Hinder the performance of the body 3.Poor Nutritional Status: The nutrients intake Lower than body needs, without any disorders disease. 4.Latent Nutritional status : The nutrients intake Lower than body needs, with Imbalance in the body functions. 5.Clinical Malnutrition status: The nutrients intake Lower than body needs, with nutritional disorders disease.
Proper nutrition: Eating foods containing the nutrients which needed by the individual. The indicators for proper nutrition: 1.Suitable body weight according to age, body type, 2.Activity 3.Body disease resistance Malnutrition: Inadequate nutrition caused by the lack of a balanced diet or by disorders of the digestive system in which the nutrients from food cannot be absorbed properly. Factors which lead to malnutrition: Individual factors: Individual needs and Life cycle Environmental factors : Food habits, socioeconomic, Educational, factors, and availability of food
Health : A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. No health without suitable nutrition. Metabolism The sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is produced and maintained (anabolism), and also the transformation by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism (catabolism). Calorie: Is a unit of measurement for energy. Kilojoules Empty calorie: Unnecessary calories are converted in the body to fat. However, if calorie intake is limited for the sake of reducing weight, insufficient vitamin and mineral intake may lead to malnutrition.
Physiological functions: Social functions Psychological functions
1-Physiological functions: Energy production: The food supply body with energy for different biological processes, from the oxidation processes. Building and repairing: building new cells and maintenance and renewal of damaged tissues. Regulation and controlling : for different biological processes like: Organization of construction and renovation of body cells, heart rate, Regulate body temperature, Muscle contraction, fecal disposal, water balance and blood coagulation 2-Social functions: Lunch and dinner parties a way for increasing social relations 3-Psychological functions : Eating is the leading cause of happiness and stability of mood, Feeling of hunger in humans cause anxiety. Food functions: