2 Chambers of the Heart Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.Right AtriumReceives bloodthrough thesuperior andinferior vena cava.Left VentriclePumps blood rich inoxygen through the aortato the arteries to nourishthe body systems.Right VentriclePumps blood in need ofoxygen to the lungs.
3 Development of Atherosclerosis Fatty Streaks Develop on the Arterial Walls at Injury SpotsGrowth and Hardening of Fatty StreaksPlaque Formation (well developed by age 30)Narrowing and Loss of Elasticity of the ArteriesRestriction of Blood Flow to the Heart or BrainLimited Oxygen Delivery to the Heart or BrainBlood Pressure ElevationBlood Clot Formation and ThrombosisAngina, Heart Attack and/or StrokeAtherosclerosis usually begins with the accumulation of soft fatty streaks along the inner arterial walls, esp at branch pointsThe initiating step in the process of atherosclerosis is some form of injury or inflammation of the arterial wallHigh BP, high chol levels, cigarette smoking are potential sources of injuryRaised LDL chol levels are a sign of high heart attack risk b/c LDLs in the blood tend to deposit cholesterol in the arteriesResearchers now theorize that LDL cholesterol is damaging to the artery walls once it has been oxidizedCirculating LDL is more likely to settle along the linings of the artery walls after it first reacts with an unstable form of oxygen to become oxidized LDL cholesterolResearchers believe that scavenger cells from the immune system (macrophages) ingest more and more of the oxidized LDL particles and eventually become foam cellsThese foam cells eventually burst and deposit their accumulated cholesterol as debris in the arterial wall, leading to the development of fatty streaksThese fatty streaks gradually enlarge and become hardened with minerals forming plaquesMost people have well developed plaques by age 30The progression of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries may restrict blood flow to the heart muscle and limit the delivery of oxygenA diet high in saturated fat is a major contributor to the development of plaques and the progression of atherosclerosisSmall, cell-like bodies in the blood, known as platelets, cause clots to form whenever they encounter injuries in blood vesselsClots usually form and dissolve all the timein atherosclerosis, clots form faster than they dissolve b/c the platelets respond to plaques as they normally do to injuryA blood clot can stick to a plaque in an artery and gradually grow large enough to restrict or close off a blood vessel (thrombosis)A clot may also break free from the artery wall and travel through the circulatory system until it lodges in a small artery and suddenly shuts off flow to the tissues fed by the arteryThese actions rob the tissue of oxygen and nutrients and the tissue may eventually dieWhen arteries are narrowed by plaques or clots, blood flow is restricted, and the heart must generate more pressure to deliver blood to the tissuesthe higher blood pressure further damages artery walls and plaques and clots are more apt to form at the sites of injuriesHeart attack (coronary thrombosis)blocks blood flow through an artery that feeds the heart muscleStroke or cerebrovascular accident (cerebral thrombosis)blocks blood flow through an artery that feeds the brain
5 Blood Pressure the vessels by the blood flowing through them. Definition: A measure of the force exerted against the walls ofthe vessels by the blood flowing through them.Systolic Blood PressurePressure exerted by bloodagainst walls of the arteriesduring forceful contractionof the heart.Diastolic Blood PressurePressure exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries duringrelaxation of the heart.Sphygmomanometer &Stethoscope
6 What Is a Healthy Blood Pressure? 115/75 mm HgHEALTHY READING/80-90 mm HgPREHYPERTENSION/90-99 mm Hg160+/100+ mm HgHYPERTENSION
7 Preventing Hypertension Lifestyle ChangesLosing weight.Regular exercise.Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet).Restriction of daily sodium intake.
8 Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Factors You Can ControlPhysical InactivityTobaccoObesityBlood FatsMetabolic SyndromeDiabetes MellitusFactors You Can’t ControlHeredityRace and EthnicityAgeGenderBacterial Infection
9 Tobacco and Heart Disease Smoking is the single most significant risk factor for CV disease and peripheral vascular disease.Each year smoking causes 250,000+ deaths from cardiovascular disease.Active vs. passive smoking.How Smoking Damages The Heart:Nicotine overstimulates the heart.Carbon monoxide reduce the oxygen supply to the heart.Tars and other smoke residues increase the risk of cholesterol build-up in the arteries.Smoking increases blood clotting.Smoking causes irreversible damage to the arteries.
10 Understanding Blood Lipids Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) - Fatty substances produced by the liver that carry cholesterol to arterial walls: “bad” cholesterolHigh Density Lipoproteins (HDL) – Fatty substance that picks up cholesterol in the bloodstream and returns it to the liver; “good cholesterolTriglycerides – Fats that flow through the blood after meals and have been linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease
12 The Lifestyle Syndrome Definition: A cluster of conditions and diseases that result from:Consuming too many calories.Ingesting too much saturated fat, sodium, and alcohol.Not burning up enough calories.Smoking or being exposed to tobacco smoke.Consequences:Hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, depression, sexual dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus.
13 Unclogging The Arteries Cholesterol-lowering drugsLow-fat dietDean Ornish Diet (without medications)Very low-fat diet (8% of total daily calories)Moderate exercise for 1 hour three times per week.Stress counseling.One hour of yoga, meditation, breathing, and progressive relaxation per day.
14 Heart-Smart Strategies For Life Don’t smokeWatch your weightCut down on saturated fat and cholesterolGet movingLower your stress levelsKnow your family historyGet your blood pressure checked regularlyTame your temperGet a lipoprotein profileTake appropriate medications