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Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Section V: Concept 17: Weight Control Created by: Gregory J. Welk Iowa State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Section V: Concept 17: Weight Control Created by: Gregory J. Welk Iowa State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Section V: Concept 17: Weight Control Created by: Gregory J. Welk Iowa State University

2 2Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Creeping Obesity OBESITY AGE HIGH FAT LOW FAT

3 3Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Creeping Obesity Physical activity decreases and leads to a decrease In metabolic rate. If energy expenditure drops more than energy intake, weight gain will occur

4 4Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Pounds of Weight Americans Want to Lose

5 5Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Other Causes of Overfatness Heredity - somatotype Heredity - somatotype Set point Set point Gland problems (2%) Gland problems (2%) Baby fatness Baby fatness

6 6Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Prevalence of Dieting 40% of all women 40% of all women 25% of all men 25% of all men Diet products are a 33 billion dollar industry.

7 7Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Almost All Diets are Unsuccessful 50% regain all weight within 2 years 50% regain all weight within 2 years 5-10% keep weight off permanently 5-10% keep weight off permanently Why do diets fail?

8 8Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Cycle of Dieting START DIET INITIAL MOTIVATION POSITIVE RESULTS TROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCE FAIL W / DIET BLAME SELF REGAIN INSPIRATION

9 9Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Yo-Yo Dieting Yo-Yo Dieting Increased resistance to weight loss Increased resistance to weight loss Increased efficiency of weight gain Increased efficiency of weight gain Info on weight cycling

10 10Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Problems with Fad Diets Weight loss is often water loss Weight loss is often water loss Supplements may be dangerous Supplements may be dangerous Diet may lack essential nutrients Diet may lack essential nutrients Metabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low. Metabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low. Web17-03 for information on fad diets

11 11Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Problems with Appetite Suppressants Many people use non prescription appetite suppressants to control eating. Many people use non prescription appetite suppressants to control eating. Ephedrine related products have been found to be dangerous and have been banned by the FDA Ephedrine related products have been found to be dangerous and have been banned by the FDA –Herbal equivalents (e.g. Ma Huang are not safe). Web17-05 for information on ephedra

12 12Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Problems with Prescription Weight Control Pills Fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen) Fenfluramine/phentermine (fen/phen) –Used in medicines such as Redux and Pondimin –Contributes to a form of valvular heart disease. –Currently banned by the FDA Sibutramine Sibutramine –used in a product called Meridia. –Has been approved by the FDA but may raise blood pressure and lead to irregular heart beats.

13 13Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Principles of Weight Control (A balance between intake and expenditure) EX IN IN > EX -Gain Weight IN = EX -Maintain Weight IN < EX -Lose Weight

14 14Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Weight Loss Basics Need to create a caloric deficit (2 ways to do it!) Need to create a caloric deficit (2 ways to do it!) –Eat less! –Exercise more! Lab 17b info Web17-02 for information on different weight control resources and links

15 15Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Lifestyle Approach! Healthy eating patterns Healthy eating patterns Regular activity patterns Regular activity patterns A simple AND effective method for long-term weight control

16 16Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Healthy Eating Patterns Eating a variety of foods Eating a variety of foods Eating smaller, more frequent meals Eating smaller, more frequent meals Avoiding binging Avoiding binging Reducing fat intake Reducing fat intake –Fat is calorically dense (high in calories) –Fat is more easily stored than carbohydrates or protein Lab 17a info Info from studies on dietary fat and weight control

17 17Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Regular Activity Patterns Benefits of Exercise for Weight Control Benefits of Exercise for Weight Control –Burns calories –Maintains LBM –Increases metabolism –Promotes greater fat loss –Suppresses appetite What type of exercise is best? What type of exercise is best? –Aerobic exercise –Strength or muscle endurance exercise Info on exercise and weight

18 18Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Weight Loss Calculations 1 pound of fat = 3500 calories Maximum weight loss should be no more than 1-2 pounds per week: 500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound) 500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound) 1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds)

19 19Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Behavior Change Principles for Weight Control Set realistic goals Set realistic goals Moderation in behavior Moderation in behavior Consistency in behavior Consistency in behavior Social support Social support

20 20Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Web Resources On the Web On the Web pages for Concept Online Learning Center

21 Supplemental Graphics Lab Information Additional Graphics on the Effects of Diet and Activity on Weight Control

22 22Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Lab 17a Information Selecting Strategies for Managing Eating Select strategies that you might find useful for effective eating habits from Chart 1. Select strategies that you might find useful for effective eating habits from Chart 1. Discuss your personal experiences with eating and describe your need for employing these strategies in your life. Discuss your personal experiences with eating and describe your need for employing these strategies in your life. Return to presentation

23 23Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Return to presentation Lab 17b Information Evaluating Fast Food Options Compute intake of calories, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol from a typical fast food meal. (see Appendix E) Compute intake of calories, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol from a typical fast food meal. (see Appendix E) Compare values to recommended amounts to see how fast food meals influence daily intakes. Compare values to recommended amounts to see how fast food meals influence daily intakes. Discuss the results Discuss the results

24 24Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Somatotypes MESO -morph MESO -morph ECTO -morph ECTO -morph ENDO -morph ENDO -morph

25 25Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Body Weight Time Control Diet High Fat Diet 2x slower 3x faster (Brownell, 1986) Weight Cycling Return to presentation

26 26Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Benefits of Low Fat Diets for Long Term Weight Control Dietary fat is stored more efficiently - 3% of ingested energy (Tucker, 1991). Dietary fat is stored more efficiently - 3% of ingested energy (Tucker, 1991). Energy intake is lower when consuming low fat foods (Lissner, 1987; Kendall, 1991). Energy intake is lower when consuming low fat foods (Lissner, 1987; Kendall, 1991). Body can increase metabolism of carbohydrates but will store excess fat (Thomas, 1992). Body can increase metabolism of carbohydrates but will store excess fat (Thomas, 1992).

27 27Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e DietFat% Pro% CHO% KcalWT Low Fat15-20% 13% 70% kg Mod Fat30-35% 12% 55% 2352~ 0 kg High Fat45-50% 10% 42% kg Key Findings: Subjects on a two week ad libitum diet gained weight eating high fat foods and lost weight on a low fat diet! Effects of Diet Composition on Calorie Intake (Lissner et al., 1987)

28 28Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Effects of Diet Composition on Body Fatness Dietary fat intake was significantly related to adiposity after controlling for other potential confounds (total caloric intake, exercise level, smoking status and age) Dietary fat intake was significantly related to adiposity after controlling for other potential confounds (total caloric intake, exercise level, smoking status and age) Carbohydrate and protein intake were NOT related to adiposity Carbohydrate and protein intake were NOT related to adiposity Return to presentation (Tucker et al., 1991)

29 29Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Exercise No Exercise Body Weight Time Weight Loss (kg) ExNo Ex Fat LBM Total (Hill et al., 1987) Effects of Exercise and Caloric Restriction

30 30Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Interaction Between Diet and Physical Inactivity ns p =.03 (Lissner et al., 1997)


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