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© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness & Wellness 9e Concept 14 Nutrition The amount.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness & Wellness 9e Concept 14 Nutrition The amount."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness & Wellness 9e Concept 14 Nutrition The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness.

2 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Online Learning Center Presentation Overview General Nutrition Concepts General Nutrition Concepts Total Diet Approach Total Diet Approach Dietary Recommendations for the 6 Classes of Nutrients Dietary Recommendations for the 6 Classes of Nutrients Sound Eating Practices Sound Eating Practices 2 Discussion Activity

3 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 General Nutrition Influences of Nutrition Influences of Nutrition Health Health Appearance Appearance Behavior Behavior Mood Mood Role of Nutrients in Diet Role of Nutrients in Diet Growth and development Growth and development Provide energy Provide energy Regulate metabolism Regulate metabolism

4 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 MyPyramid Click icon for info on Lab 14b Personalized, behavioral approach to nutrition Personalized, behavioral approach to nutrition Web-based assessment tool, MyPyramid Tracker Web-based assessment tool, MyPyramid Tracker Physical activity emphasized Physical activity emphasized Click here to view mypyramid animation mypyramid animation mypyramid animation

5 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Total Diet Approach Combination of foods/beverages over time Combination of foods/beverages over time 1. Moderate Energy Intake 2. Reduce Solid Fats and Added Sugars (SoFAS) 3. Consume Nutrient-Dense Foods 4. Reduce Sodium Intake Examples Examples Mediterranean-style Mediterranean-style Vegetarian Vegetarian

6 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Target Zone for Healthy Eating

7 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Values

8 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8

9 Dietary Recommendations 9 LabLab 14a Lab

10 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Classes of Nutrients 1.Carbohydrates 2.Fats 3.Proteins 4.Vitamins 5.Minerals 6.Water Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient.

11 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Carbohydrates (2 types) Simple Simple Soda, candy, sweets, fruit Soda, candy, sweets, fruit Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose molecules Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose molecules Increase blood sugar Increase blood sugar Promote fat deposition Promote fat deposition Complex Complex Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes Contribute nutrients and fiber Contribute nutrients and fiber Chains of glucose molecules Chains of glucose molecules

12 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption C A R B O H Y D R A T E S SIMPLE COMPLEX P E R C E N T 65% 35% 50% 50% 45% 55%

13 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Low Carb Mania (What is the basis?) Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic, but this is not well supported by research Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic, but this is not well supported by research The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber Click icon for info on fiber

14 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Carbohydrate Recommendations Choose fiber-rich fruits and vegetables Choose fiber-rich fruits and vegetables Minimum of 5 servings/day Minimum of 5 servings/day Select whole grain foods when possible Select whole grain foods when possible Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners

15 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Fats Saturated Saturated Animal sources Animal sources Solid at room temperature Solid at room temperature Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) Vegetable sources Vegetable sources Liquid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature H H H H H H H H H H H H H O HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH H H H H H H H H H H Click icon for info on fat content of oils

16 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Types of Fats continued The hydrogenation process used to convert oils into solids produce trans fat, which is just as harmful as saturated fats, if not more so The hydrogenation process used to convert oils into solids produce trans fat, which is just as harmful as saturated fats, if not more so Trans fats are known to cause increases in LDL cholesterol and have been shown to contribute to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque Trans fats are known to cause increases in LDL cholesterol and have been shown to contribute to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque Click icon for info on hydrogenation process

17 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Fat Substitutes Olestra Olestra Simplesse Simplesse Benecol Benecol Take Control Take Control Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

18 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Recommendations for Fat Consumption <10 % Saturated Fatty Acid Intake <10 % Saturated Fatty Acid Intake Continued reductions to 7% Continued reductions to 7% <300 mg/day Dietary Cholesterol <300 mg/day Dietary Cholesterol Avoid trans fatty acids from processed foods Avoid trans fatty acids from processed foods <5-7% of energy from cholesterol- raising fats <5-7% of energy from cholesterol- raising fats Consume 2 servings seafood/week Consume 2 servings seafood/week

19 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Protein Sources of Protein Sources of Protein Animal (complete ) Animal (complete ) meats, dairy meats, dairy Vegetable (incomplete) Vegetable (incomplete) beans, nuts, legumes, grains beans, nuts, legumes, grains Types of Amino Acids Types of Amino Acids Nonessential (11) - can be made by body Nonessential (11) - can be made by body Essential (9) - must be obtained from diet Essential (9) - must be obtained from diet Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids Amino acids linked together

20 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Protein Guidelines 10-35% (smallest % of total calories consumed) 10-35% (smallest % of total calories consumed) RDA average =.8 g/kg/day RDA average =.8 g/kg/day RDA athlete = g/kg/day RDA athlete = g/kg/day People on low calorie diets need to consume a higher % of protein (and vice versa) People on low calorie diets need to consume a higher % of protein (and vice versa) High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day can be harmful to the body

21 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Protein Guidelines Vegetarians must eat combinations of foods to assure an adequate intake of essential amino acids Vegetarians must eat combinations of foods to assure an adequate intake of essential amino acids Vegans should supplement w/ B-12 Vegans should supplement w/ B-12 Dietary supplements of protein (e.g., tablets and powders) are NOT recommended Dietary supplements of protein (e.g., tablets and powders) are NOT recommended

22 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Vegetarians & Protein ADA: well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, and lactation, and can satisfy the nutrient needs of infants, children, and adolescents. ADA: well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, and lactation, and can satisfy the nutrient needs of infants, children, and adolescents. Soy protein provides additional health benefits Soy protein provides additional health benefits 22

23 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Vitamins Do not contain calories Do not contain calories Organic substances that regulate numerous physiological processes Organic substances that regulate numerous physiological processes Antioxidant All-stars Antioxidant All-stars Broccoli, cantaloupe, carrots, strawberries, red bell peppers, sweet potatoes, spinach Broccoli, cantaloupe, carrots, strawberries, red bell peppers, sweet potatoes, spinach Two types Two types 1. Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) 2. Water soluble Click for more info on vitamins

24 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Vitamin Guidelines Eat a diet containing the recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins Eat a diet containing the recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables Extra consumption of citrus & other fruits, and other non-animal food sources high in fiber, vitamins, & minerals Extra consumption of citrus & other fruits, and other non-animal food sources high in fiber, vitamins, & minerals Consider daily multi-vitamin Consider daily multi-vitamin If you have special needs, seek medical advice If you have special needs, seek medical advice Click for info on anti-oxidants

25 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Minerals No calories/provide no energy No calories/provide no energy Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes Calcium - bone, muscle, nerve, blood development Calcium - bone, muscle, nerve, blood development Iron - necessary for blood to carry oxygen Iron - necessary for blood to carry oxygen Others - phosphorus, sodium, zinc, potassium (& more ) Others - phosphorus, sodium, zinc, potassium (& more )

26 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 Mineral Guidelines Same guidelines as Vitamins PLUS… Same guidelines as Vitamins PLUS… Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for post- menopausal women Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for post- menopausal women Salt should be limited in the diet Salt should be limited in the diet Click for more info on minerals

27 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation Pregnant/lactating women Pregnant/lactating women Alcoholics Alcoholics Elderly Elderly Women with severe menstrual losses Women with severe menstrual losses Individuals on VLCDs Individuals on VLCDs Strict vegetarians Strict vegetarians Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption

28 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Water Vital to life Vital to life Drink at least 8 glasses a day Drink at least 8 glasses a day Coffee, tea, & soft drinks should not be substituted for sources of key nutrients, such as low-fat milk, fruit juices, or foods rich in calcium Coffee, tea, & soft drinks should not be substituted for sources of key nutrients, such as low-fat milk, fruit juices, or foods rich in calcium 3 caffeinated beverages/day3 caffeinated beverages/day Limit sugared soft drinks Limit sugared soft drinks If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation Click for more info on water Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

29 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 Sound Eating Practices Consistency (with variety) is a good general rule of nutrition Consistency (with variety) is a good general rule of nutrition Moderation & mindfulness (portion sizes) Moderation & mindfulness (portion sizes) Minimize reliance on fast foods Minimize reliance on fast foods Minimize overly processed foods and foods high in saturated fat or hydrogenated fats Minimize overly processed foods and foods high in saturated fat or hydrogenated fats Healthy snacks Healthy snacks Consider organic foods Consider organic foods

30 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 Nutrition & Physical Performance Complex carbohydrates should constitute as much as 70% of total caloric intake Complex carbohydrates should constitute as much as 70% of total caloric intake Active individuals may need higher amounts of protein (1.2 g/kg of body weight) Active individuals may need higher amounts of protein (1.2 g/kg of body weight) Carbohydrate loading and carbohydrate replacement during exercise can enhance sustained aerobic performance Carbohydrate loading and carbohydrate replacement during exercise can enhance sustained aerobic performance

31 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 31 Nutrition: Summary Important to health/wellness Important to health/wellness 6 classes of nutrients 6 classes of nutrients Moderation and variety Moderation and variety Fruits and veggies are critical! Fruits and veggies are critical! Beware of nutrition quackery Beware of nutrition quackery Some individuals may have additional nutritional needs based on activity level, pregnancy, etc. Some individuals may have additional nutritional needs based on activity level, pregnancy, etc. End of presentation

32 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 32 Supplemental Information Lab Information Lab Information Details on nutrition Details on nutrition Discussion Activity Discussion Activity Online Learning Center

33 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 Lab 14a Information Nutrition Analysis Lab 14a Information Nutrition Analysis Purpose: Compare quality of favorite diet with your ideal healthy diet Purpose: Compare quality of favorite diet with your ideal healthy diet Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins

34 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 34 Lab 14a Information Nutrition Analysis - cont. Protein 350 Protein 350 Fat 800 Fat 800 Carbohydrate1400 Carbohydrate1400 Totals2550 Calories % of Total Calories Divide the calories by the total to get the percentage Return to presentation Making calorie calculations

35 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 35 Lab 14b Information Selecting Nutritious Foods Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Implications: Rate the quality of the diet according to the Rating Scale Implications: Rate the quality of the diet according to the Rating Scale Return to presentation

36 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 36 Fiber Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels found in oat bran, fruits and veggies found in oat bran, fruits and veggies Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer found in wheat bran and grains found in wheat bran and grains Recommendation: 25-40g per day Are you getting enough?

37 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 37 Ways to Get More Fiber Eat more fruits and vegetables Eat more fruits and vegetables Eat whole grain foods Eat whole grain foods

38 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 38 A Grain of Wheat BRAN - B vitamins - B vitamins - minerals - minerals - dietary fiber - dietary fiber ENDOSPERM - starch - starch - protein - protein - some iron & - some iron & B vitamins B vitamins GERM - essential fats - essential fats - minerals - minerals - vitamins - vitamins (B's, E & folacin) (B's, E & folacin) Return to presentation

39 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 39 Composition of Oils (%) Type SatPoly Mono safflower sunflower corn soybean sesame peanut palm olive canola Return to presentation

40 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 40 Hydrogenation Process Return to presentation

41 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 41 Fat Soluble Vitamins Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D)

42 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 42 Water Soluble Vitamins Consist of B complex and vitamin C Consist of B complex and vitamin C Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts

43 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 43 Water Soluble Vitamins B-1 (thiamine) B-1 (thiamine) B-2 (riboflavin) B-2 (riboflavin) B-6 (pyridoxine) B-6 (pyridoxine) B-12 (cobalamin) B-12 (cobalamin) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid (folacin) Folic Acid (folacin) Biotin Biotin C Return to presentation

44 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 44 Antioxidant All-Stars Broccoli Broccoli Cantaloupe Cantaloupe Carrot Carrot Kale Kale Mango Mango Pumpkin Pumpkin Red Pepper Red Pepper Spinach Spinach Strawberries Strawberries Sweet potato Sweet potato Return to presentation

45 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 45 Minerals with established RDA guidelines Calcium Calcium Calcium Phosphorus Phosphorus Iodine Iodine Iron Iron Iron Magnesium Magnesium Zinc Zinc Selenium Selenium Return to presentation

46 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 46 Calcium Important for preventing osteoporosis Important for preventing osteoporosis RDA = mg/day RDA = mg/day Found in dairy products and vegetables High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis Found in dairy products and vegetables High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis Return to presentation

47 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 47 Iron Important component of hemoglobin Important component of hemoglobin Iron deficiency is known as anemia (Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) Iron deficiency is known as anemia (Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) Return to presentation

48 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 48 Functions of Water Comprises about 60% of body weight Comprises about 60% of body weight Chief component of blood plasma Chief component of blood plasma Aids in temperature regulation Aids in temperature regulation Lubricates joints Lubricates joints Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Active participant in many chemical reactions Active participant in many chemical reactions Return to presentation

49 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 49 Caloric Content of Foods Carbohydrates4 cal/g Protein4 cal/g Fats9 cal/g Alcohol7 cal/g

50 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 50 Calorie Calculation (Example) Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day

51 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 51 What is Baloney? 80% "fat free 52 calories / slice 4 grams fat / slice Calories from fat = 4 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 36 calories Percent of calories from fat = 36 cal / 52 cal total = 69%

52 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 52 What about Sliced Turkey? 98% "fat free 30 calories / slice 1 gram fat / slice Calories from fat = 1 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 9 calories Percent of calories from fat = 9 cal / 30 cal total = 30% Return to presentation

53 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Discussion Activity When you hear the term mindful eating, what does that mean to you? 53 Return to presentation


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