Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Nutrition Chapter 10 You are what you eat! Super size fries = ???? 400,000 deaths annually related to poor diet and inactivity.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Chapter 10 You are what you eat! Super size fries = ???? 400,000 deaths annually related to poor diet and inactivity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Chapter 10 You are what you eat! Super size fries = ???? 400,000 deaths annually related to poor diet and inactivity.

2 High Nutrient Density l Foods that are rich in nutrients relative to their energy cost


4 Essential and Non- essential Nutrients l Essential: obtained from the diet only l Non-essential: manufactured in the body

5 Essential Nutrients l Fats l Carbohydrates l Proteins l Vitamins l Minerals l Water


7 Energy or Fuel Nutrients l Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram l Proteins: 4 calories per gram l Fats: 9 calories per gram


9 Carbs, Fats, Proteins l 1 package of peanut butter crackers has 210 calories: – 23 gm carbohydrates X 4 calories = 92 – 5 gm protein X 4 calories = 20 – 11 gm fat X 9 calories = 99 » Over ½ the calories per serving comes from fat l 6 turkey sub (no mayo with olives) 280 calories – 46 gm carbohydrates X 4 = 184 – 18 gm protein X 4 = 72 – 4.5 gm fat X 9 = 40.5

10 Just For Your Information l Web site for fast food nutritional information –

11 Recommended Intake l Carbohydrates – 55%-60% of total calories »45 to 50 % complex »10% simple sugars

12 Carbohydrates l Primary source of energy for the body l High octane fuel l Source of fiber

13 Carbohydrates l Simple – Example sources: table sugar, desserts l Complex » Example sources: Rice, pasta, cereal, fruits, vegetables




17 Complex Carbohydrates l Visual is the old food pyramid – New food pyramid info: – Incorporates exercise – 12 separate pyramids – Servings in ounces or cups l 6 to 11 servings per day from this group l Mentally, draw a food pyramid that reflects your dietary intake

18 Complex Carbohydrates: Source Of Fiber

19 Dietary Fiber l Indigestible portion of carbohydrates: – Skin – Seeds l Found only in plant foods – Not found in animal sources

20 Dietary Fiber #2 l May assist in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, CV disease, colon cancer as well as other health problems l Chinese diet

21 Recommended Fiber Intake l 25 to 35 g/day (most consume 10-15g) – Sudden increases may cause gas, diarrhea, and bloating l 1 cup pinto beans 12g l 1 apple 4g l 1 c. bran flakes 6g

22 Fats l Required for normal functioning l 30% of calories should come from fat – 10% saturated (avoid) – 10% monounsaturated – 10% poly unsaturated l 20% or less if goal is weight loss or lowering cholesterol

23 Types of Dietary Fat l Saturated l Unsaturated – Polyunsaturated – Monounsaturated l Do not restrict fat in children <2 yrs. or for those with very serious illnesses (unless physician prescribed)

24 Saturated Fat l Animal Sources: beef, butter, cheese, whole milk l Vegetable Sources – Coconut oil – Palm oil – Cocoa butter l Solid at room temperature l Contributes significantly to high cholesterol levels

25 Unsaturated Fats l Polyunsaturated –Lowers both LDL and HDL –Corn oil l Monounsaturated (associated with lower cholesterol levels) –Lowers LDL but not HDL –Canola oil l Liquid at room temperature

26 Fish Oils l Omega -3 fatty Acid l Source: Cold water fish –(not canned fish) l Appear to have positive effects on blood lipids l Three meals per week recommended

27 Trans-Fatty Acids / Hydrogenation l Read these terms as saturated fat l Trans-fatty acids / Food labels –May be more problematic than saturated fat »Stick margarines »Baked desserts




31 Olestra l 25 years and 250 million dollars spent l Fat molecules are so large that they pass through the bowel, unabsorbed by the body. l May cause loss of vitamins, D,A,K, and E l Gastrointestinal problems l Potential CV problems, stroke, seizures, perhaps cancer.

32 Proteins l Primarily for maintenance and repair of the body l Composed of amino acids found in plant and animal products – Essential amino acids – Non-essential amino acids

33 Proteins – Complete (high quality) – Incomplete

34 Complete Proteins l Contain all the essential amino acids l Usually from animal sources

35 Incomplete Proteins l One or more of the essential amino acids are missing (plant source) l Properly combined vegetable sources can result in all the essential amino acids – Example: red beans and rice

36 Recommended Intake l Protein – 12-15% of calories should come from protein » Slightly higher if very active

37 Protein Intake #2 l Two servings daily of 3-6 ounces –Each serving about the size of a deck of cards l Increased amounts may be required during growth, certain disease states, pregnancy, and lactation. l 0.8 g/kg of body weight

38 Protein Intake #3 l Example: 100 pounds = 45.5kg BW l 45.5 x.8 = 36.4 g l l chicken breast = 29-35 grams l 1 cup milk = 8 grams l 1, McDonalds quarter pounder = 23 grams l 1, 3 ounce steak = 24 grams l 1 c. pasta = 4 grams l Food labels do not give % of daily value related to protein

39 Amino Acid Supplementation l Excesses of one amino acid may prevent absorption of other amino acids. l Is not required to develop greater muscle mass (contrary to belief) l U.S. Olympic Sports Medicine Committee

40 Creatine: Speeds up muscle recovery time –Helps in recovery of fatigued muscles –Appears safe –Long term effects??? –Consume increased amounts of fluid –Exercising in heat?

41 Vitamins: Function l Regulators of body processes l No caloric value l Destroyed by heat

42 Vitamins l Essential for life l Fat soluble vitamins –A, D, E, and K –Stored in the body l Water soluble –C and B complex –Not stored in the body

43 Minerals l Vital but exists in minute amounts l Supplementation is generally not necessary except for calcium, iron, and zinc –The previous statement is being evaluated by health professionals

44 Iron l The mineral most important in helping with oxygen transport. l Best source: red meat l Only 10% of iron consumed is absorbed

45 Calcium l Most abundant mineral in the body l The body cant manufacture calcium l Milk is the most reliable source

46 Calcium #2 l Average recommended amounts: – 1000 to 1500mg daily – Essential during entire life l One cup of milk has about 300mg l Essential for the prevention of osteoporosis: – Calcium, estrogen, and weight bearing activity

47 Calcium #3 l 60% of post menopausal women develop osteoporosis – Example: sponge – Grandmother falls and breaks a hip – Who is at greatest risk? l Supplementation is recommended


49 Water l Most essential nutrient l 8 glasses recommended daily –Represents 60%-70% of total body weight

50 Vitamin Supplements: A Changing Issue

51 Food For Performance l Carbohydrate loading l If exercising > 1 hour per day, 70% of calories should come from carbohydrates l Re-supply system with carbohydrates within an hour of prolonged activity

52 Caffeine l Is a central nervous system stimulant –Increases: »Alertness »Nervousness »Irritability »Increased heart rate »Headaches »Decreases fatigue l The equivalent of 1 to 2 cups of coffee a day is considered acceptable. l Is linked to fibrocystic breast disease in women


54 Herbal Supplementation l > $ 8 billion spent annually l FDA does not control these products – Research l All natural does not always mean good

55 Herbal Supplementation l Ma Huang (ephedra or ephedrine) – Now BANNED!! l Look for the term standardized and buy made in the US –Products do not always contain stated % of active ingredient l Dietary supplements include: amino acid supplements, weight control products, and others l Watch stacking l What can the public do if a product is problematic?

56 Nutrient Content Descriptors l Low-fat: 3g or less per serving l High source of vitamin C: 20% l Good source of vitamin C: 10-19% l Reduced fat: 25% less than the original l Light: 1/3 fewer calories or ½ the fat, color, Dixie café light menu l P. 259-260

57 **Additional Information** l Coral Calcium l Acrylamide –Cancer causing agent –Frequent and long term consumption –Produced when certain foods are fried at high temperatures »Potato chips »French fries

Download ppt "Nutrition Chapter 10 You are what you eat! Super size fries = ???? 400,000 deaths annually related to poor diet and inactivity."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google