Presentation on theme: "The 1960s By Sam Ambrose, Caroline Robinson, and Eric Lynch."— Presentation transcript:
The 1960s By Sam Ambrose, Caroline Robinson, and Eric Lynch
Domestic and Foreign Challenges
Domestic The Compton's Cafeteria Riot. (August 1966) Happened in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. It was one of the first recorded transgender riots in United States history. Stonewall Riots (June 1969) Occurred in New York City. Amongst the first times in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back against a government system that persecuted sexual minorities. Sparked the beginning of the Gay Rights Movement in the US and around the world. Civil Rights Movement.
Foreign Vietnam War ( ) Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961-failure.)
Foreign Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviets were persuaded, in May 1962, by the idea of countering the United States' growing lead in developing and deploying missiles by placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba. Soviets used denial and deception. Transporting and deploying missiles was done in total secrecy. After discovering Soviet missile sites in Cuba, JFK blockaded the island of Cuba. He did this to avoid any kind of national event. 13 day Cuban missile crisis of 1962 had brought the worlds two super bowers dangerously close to nuclear war. Soviets agreed to remove their missiles as long asthe US would remove its missiles from Turkey.
Roots of Civil Rights Movement Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) Declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson Little Rock Nine (1957) Nine African American students enrolled at Little Rock Central High school in 1957 after segregation in public schools was declared unconstitutional Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) 13 month mass protest against racial segregation on public transit in Montgomery, Alabama
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 June 19, 1963 – President Kennedy submitted a civil rights bill to Congress July 2 nd, 1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Act itself: Forbade discrimination in public places Provided integration of public schools and other previously segregated public facilities Outlawed discrimination on the basis of gender or race in hiring, promoting, or firing employees.
Martin Luther King Jr. ( ) African American Minister and Nobel Peace Prize Winner Initiated the idea of nonviolent protest within the civil rights movement August 27 th King delivered his famous Let Freedom Ring address at mass civil rights rally in D.C. Spoke out against the Vietnam War Was assassinated on an outside balcony at the Lorraine Hotel after speaking at a civil rights rally in Memphis
Malcolm X One of the most influential African American leaders of the 1960s When Malcolm was just 5 years old, his father was found dead after being run over by a street car. Malcolm later suspected racists were responsible for the crime. At age 12, his mother was committed to a mental hospital, and he spent the remaining of his childhood in foster homes, where he became involved in crime. In 1946 he was arrested for burglary. While in jail he joined the Nation of Islam, also known as the Black Muslims. After being released, he became the Nation of Islams most effective minister
Malcolm X (Continued) He encouraged other African Americans to live separately from whites and to win their freedom by any means In 1964, due to their lack of political action, Malcolm separated himself from The Nation of Islam and traveled to Mecca. When he returned to the states, he formed the Organization of Afro-American unity He cooperated with fellow African American leader, Martin Luther King Jr., even though he rejected Kings idea of non- violent protest. February 21 st, 1965 – Malcolm X was shot and killed while giving a speech in New York City.
Womens Liberation Movement The Womens Liberation Movement challenged the traditional roles of American women Feminism served as a revolutionary device to argue against strict gender roles in American society Women were commonly considered to be of a lower class than their male companions and were stereotyped as helpless and emotional in comparison to men, and were resigned to serve the functioning of the home. President Kennedy aided womens rights activists by appointing Esther Peterson as the first women head of the Womens Bureau of Congress Department, which overviewed womens issues in the workplace. The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women was formed in 1961 to study economic and legal rights of women. The commission recommended changes in employment and social services and helped form the direction for the womens movement. The commission was successful in getting the equal-pay bill of 1963 passed. In 1964, The Civil Rights Act was passed, which prevented discrimination in employment The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966 to represent womens issues
Positive and Negative Social/Cultural Changes Positive Pacifism and peaceful protest became more popular Rise of civil liberties and equal rights Negative: Large increase in crime Widespread urban unrest Rising energy prices and inflation
The Vietnam War Communist rebels in Vietnam, known as the Viet Cong, defeated the French control of the nation and earned independence South Vietnam, however, was still mostly under anti-communist influence and fought for political power with the Viet Cong in the communist North
President Kennedy believed in the domino theory and that Vietnams fall to communism could case a chain reaction of political influence Aiding South Vietnam would improve U.S. image and assert the dominance of American democracy. Despite this, Kennedy still felt wary about more U.S. intervention in Asia
Before Kennedy could make any major decisions on this issue, he was assassinated and Lyndon B. Johnson replaced him After the Gulf of Tonkin incident, where U.S. military in Vietnam claimed that the Viet Cong had attacked American naval vessels, LBJ encouraged Congress to declare war on North Vietnam LBJ was afraid that if America didnt defeat communism in Vietnam, the public would blame his negligence and other Asian nations would inevitably fall to communism Later it was discovered that the Americans had made the first aggressions due to a miscommunication Robert McNamara admits Gulf of Tonkin attack did not happen - YouTube Robert McNamara admits Gulf of Tonkin attack did not happen - YouTube
1965: First U.S. fighting forces committed to Vietnam A half a million young American men were sent, and 15 thousand of them were killed in the war Johnson had sent not enough troops to defeat the Viet Cong, nor had enough force to extract Americans from the battlefield A major problem with Johnsons strategy was his focus on air forces rather than ground forces; it turned out that the Viet Cong fought mostly in underground bases and trenches which could not easily be seen high above
Added to the failed strategy was the poor cooperation between U.S. troops and South Vietnamese troops At last, a stalemate came between the armies after the Tet Offensive However, political victory came for the North, proving the U.S.s efforts in fighting the communism futile
Lyndon B. Johnsons Great Society The Great Society was LBJs series of legislation that addressed discrimination, education reform, medical care, and poverty This course of action sought to improve the quality of life for everyone in the United States
Most of Johnsons voters grew up in the Great Depression and supported LBJs various programs due to their trust in government The Tax Reform Act cut taxes in order to promote economical growth and triggered decade-lasting prosperity The Economic Opportunity Act included various programs that started local anti- poverty projects, preschool programs for underprivileged children, and youth education and work experience camps The most important accomplishment by LBJ was the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed racial segregation and discriminatory voting practices against African Americans Johnson also enforced the Social Security Act of 1965, which authorized universalMedicare for older Americans and Medicaid standards for all Americans
Music of the 1960s
Music - The British Invasion A movement during the 1960s where many Rock and Roll bands from the United Kingdom were becoming increasingly popular in the United States. After the rising popularity of The Beatles, an English rock band from Liverpool, other bands from the UK followed the same route to success in the U.S. Included bands such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Animals, Gerry and the Pacemakers, The Who, The Bee Gees, The Kinks…etc.
Music Popular genres of the 1960s included rock, soul, reggae, pop, blues, and folk music The increased drug use of the 1960s effected the types of music which became popular, including Psychedelic Rock, which was heavily influenced by hallucinogens such as LSD Grateful Dead formed in 1965, giving birth to the genre known as Acid Rock Jimi Hendrix ( ) – American rock musician guitarist. Revolutionized the rock genre by experimenting with different sounds on the electric guitar. There was a great emotional appeal for his music, which was iconic for long and soulful guitar solos.
Music (Cont.) The Beach Boys One of the most popular American rock bands in history Celebrated the lifestyle of Southern California Known for their vocal harmonies and lyrics about the teenage lifestyle, surfing, and hot-rod cars The Velvet Underground An American rock band formed in NYC in 1964 Were managed by the famous artist Andy Warhol Known as one of the most influential rock bands of the 1960s
Woodstock Music and Arts Festival August 15 th -17 th 1969 Attracted a crowd of around 400,000 people Woodstock served as one of the most important events of the 1960s counterculture movement by calling attention to youth culture and values such as pacifism, social change, and personal freedom. Performing acts included the likes of Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, The Who, Jimi Hendrix, and more. During the infamous festival, there were three deaths, three births, and multiple drug overdoses
Theatre, Film, Television, & Radio
Marilyn Monroe (June 1, August 5, 1962) Born as Norma Jeane Mortensen (soon after changed to Baker) Much of Monroes childhood was spent in foster homes. When she was older, she began working at the Radioplane Munitions Factoy. (she sprayed airplane parts with fire retardant and inspected parachutes) It was here that David Conover (of US Armys 1 st motion picture unit) noticed her and snapped some photographs. Monroe soon after became a model. She was one of Blue Book's most successful models; she appeared on dozens of magazine covers. This is what brought on the attention of Ben Lyon, a 20th Century Fox executive.
Lyon did not like the name Norma Jeane, and through careful thought, the two agreed on Marilyn Monroe. Monroe was a minor character in four films and one musical in Big break was in The Asphalt Jungle (1950). Was in more motion pictures in the following years. Appeared on the first issue of Playboy in One of her most notable films was The Seven Year Itch. By late 1950s her health was deteriorating. In 1960, Marilyn appeared in her last film, The Misfits. During shooting, she was frequently ill and unable to perform. While away from her doctor, Monroe resumed her consumption of alcohol and sleeping pills. Was hospitalized for 10 days.
Monroe cont… Alcohol and prescription medication dependence increased over the course of her career and took a huge toll on her health. In February 1961, Monroe voluntarily entered the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic. Later described the experience as a nightmare. May 1962, she attended the early birthday celebration for President John F. Kennedy at Madison Square Garden. She preformed Happy Birthday, Mr. President and Thanks For The Memory. It was rumored that she had an affair with JFK. Tragically, Monroe was found dead on August 5, 1962 at 4:25 AM. She was 36 years old. Death was ruled as a possible suicide. In her career, Marilyn Monroe was in 5 television performances, 33 films, 1 uncompleted film, had preformed 35 songs within her movies, and had attained 13 awards. Marilyn Monroe had become one of the biggest sex icons She had been married 3 times, all ending in divorce, and suffered from two miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy.
Star trek Drafted as a proposal by Gene Roddenberry in Publicly marked it as a Western in outer space, privately said it was modeled after Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels. Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s. Issues included; war & peace, the value of personal loyalty, economics, imperialism, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: By creating a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek; we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network.
The show had highly progressive political agenda meant to reflect the times current events. Depicted an anti-war message. Star Treks United Federation of Planets was equivalent to that of an ideal, optimistic, of efficient version of the United Nations. Roddenberry had strongly wanted the crew of the Enterprise to be racially diverse, though the network opposed. The first episode aired on Thursday, September 8, Received very high ratings.
James bond movies In 1959, Albert R. Broccoli expressed interest in adapting the James Bond novels into films, though his colleague Irving Allen was not interested. 1961, Broccoli, along with new partner, Harry Saltzman, purchased film rights. Many Hollywood studios did not want to fund the films, stating they were too British or too blatantly sexual. Those that did wanted $1 million to make either Thunderball or Dr. No. In July 1961, production started for Dr. No. Contest was held to find James Bond. Winner was 28 year old model, Peter Anthony. When he could not cope with role, they turned to Sean Connery.
The movies (1962) Dr. No received bad review from critics. (1963) From Russia With Love Audiences loved it, as did many critics. The budget had been double what Dr. No received and they shot scenes in Europe. (1964) Golderfinger Was the most noted Bond film by popular culture. Film used the laser, which was still an extremely new invention, and a set-up to perhaps the most memorable line in Bond films: Bond: Do you expect me to talk? Goldenfinger: No, Mr. Bond, I expect you to die! (1965) Thunderball Most popular Bond novel. Most successful Bond film to date, earning $141.2 million ($1,041 million in 2012 dollars) and inspired many other spy films/novels of the 1960s. (1967) You Only Live Twice Connerys last film as James Bond, though he does return for Diamonds Are Forever and Never Say Never Again. The film was perceived well, though many stated that the second half becomes too much. Queen Elizabeth II attended the movies premier. The Bond films have continued to be produced throughout the decades.
Beverly Hillbillies Was an American situation comedy that had 9 seasons on CBS from 1962 to Starred Buddy Ebsen, Irene Ryan, Donna Douglas, and Max Baer Jr. The series was about a poor backwoods family that moved to Beverly Hills, CA after striking oil on their land. The Jed and his family bring their moral, unsophisticated, and minimalistic lifestyle to the self obsessed and superficial Beverly Hills community.
Beverly Hillbillies ranked in the top 20 most watched programs on TV for 8 of its 9 seasons, twice ranking as #1. Cancelled when it failed to get into the Top 30, in 1971 after producing 274 episodes.
FADS and Fashions
Crew cuts Haircut in which the hair on top of the head is cut relatively short, graduated in length from the longest hair at the front hairline to the shortest at the back of the crown. Hair on sides and back of head are tapered short. The very short crew cuts are also known as Buzz Cuts.. Members of the Yale rowing team sported these in the 1890s, giving it the name Crew cut. Crew cuts were fashion forward for nearly 70 years. In World War II, US armed forces began wearing them. Civilian men started sporting them too.
The Afro Also known as the Fro. Afro derived from the term Afro-American Worn naturally by people with lengthy, kinky hair textures. Started during African-American Civil Rights Movement. Brought sense of identity to the African American community and this caused them to change their personal style, which included appreciation of African beauty and aesthetics.
Go-go boots Low-heeled style of womens fashion boots worn since mid 60s. Boots are either calf-, knee-, or above knee-high boots with a low or flat heel. Chiseled, rounded, or pointed toe. Boot also usually has zipper. Idea of a womens mainstream fashion boot was revolutionary. Boots were only worn in bad weather, during rugged activities, or horseback riding. But not as street shoes. The shoes were designed to compliment shorter hemlines. Still worn today. (footwear of: NFL teams cheerleaders, exotic dancers, and Go-Go dancers.
Skateboards First skateboards to reach public notice came out of the surfing craze in the early 1960s. Originally developed to help surfers practice when waves were unfavorable. Popularity of Skateboarding spawned a national magazine, Skateboarder Magazine, and in 1965 international championships were broadcast on national television. Despite this, by 1966 sales dropped significantly and the magazine stopped publication. Popularity of the sport dropped and remained low until early 1970s.
Sports Stars Jackie Robinson The first African American to play Major League Baseball, and got into the Baseball Hall of Fame Muhammad Ali One of the worlds most famous boxers, and defeated champions Joe Frazier and George Foreman The right-fielder for the Pittsburgh Pirates who became the National League MVP with 12 Gold Glove awards Roberto Clemente Wilt Chamberlain A 7 foot tall basketball player for the 76ers and the Lakers who set the record for scoring 100 points in a single game Willy Mays One of the greatest centerfielders of all time, made 350 home runs and led the Giants to the World Series
Inventions and Technology The technology of space exploration was more advanced than ever before, and marked the U.S. victory in the Space Race with Apollo 11. The development of the heart transplant and the artificial heart were major advances in the medical field for dealing with heart failure A synthetic fiber known as Kevlar was utilized as the main component of body armor, creating light but life- saving vests for policemen to wear in combat. The ATM allowed people to make financial transactions anywhere in the world. The computer calculator increased the speed of mathematical calculations Spacewar was the first video game ever createdSpacewar was the first video game ever created
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