Presentation on theme: "Successes and Setbacks By: Stephanie, Lauren, Nikole, Yasaman, Doug, Ben."— Presentation transcript:
Successes and Setbacks By: Stephanie, Lauren, Nikole, Yasaman, Doug, Ben
Background As the 1960s began, leaders for the civil rights movement- both African American and liberal whites-stepped up the tactics of non-violent resistance throughout the south. Although eventually many of these tactics resulted in great gains for the movement, they generally were met with violence, people were attacked and killed, and only the federal government was strong enough to do something about it.
Students Stage Sit-ins ► During the winter of 1959 and 1960, civil rights groups held marches, demonstrations, and boycotts to end segregation in public places ► In February of 1960, four African American students sat down at a segregated lunch counter and refused to leave until they were served. ► This event sparked many other incidents of protests in schools across the south
Kennedy and Civil Rights ► In contrast to previous presidencies’ cautious stances on the civil rights movement, President Kennedy had promised vigorous support of the movement. ► However, Kennedy’s hesitance frustrated many white liberals and also African Americans.
Kennedy and Civil Rights Contd. Freedom Riders Freedom Riders ► Freedom Riders were activists who rode buses into segregated terminals throughout the south. ► In May of 1961, busloads of Riders were attacked by mobs in Anniston and Birmingham, Alabama. ► Local police were unable or unwilling to protect them from the angry racists. ► As a result, Kennedy was forced to use federal marshal law to restore order.
Kennedy and Civil Rights Contd. Violence in Birmingham ► In April of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. led a peaceful demonstration in Birmingham, Alabama. ► On the orders of the police commissioner, the police used fire hoses, clubs, and snarling dogs on the demonstrators including women and children. ► Kennedy sent 3,000 troops to restore peace in the city.
Trouble in Southern Universities ► In September of 1962, an African American air force veteran, James Meredith, sought entry into the University of Mississippi. ► The Governor of Mississippi, did not allow him to attend the university. ► Kennedy sent federal marshals and the national guard, who enabled James’ entrance into the university.
The March on Washington In August 1963, for the 100 th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, African American leaders planned to hold the largest civil rights demonstration in the nation’s history. This “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom” would press for the passage of Kennedy’s proposed civil rights bill, which was being debated in Congress.
The March on Washington King’s Dream of Freedom King’s Dream of Freedom ► More than 200,000 demonstrators, both African American and white, united in the nation’s capital ► It is here that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., delivered his famous “I have a dream” speech. ► The leaders of the march then left for a meeting with President Kennedy at the White House.
The March on Washington A New Civil Rights Act ► The March on Washington was a historic event for the civil rights movement. ► It confirmed for Congress the widespread support for a civil rights bill. ► After President Kennedy’s assassination on November 22, 1963, President Johnson was determined to continue Kennedy’s civil rights policies. ► Even though Johnson himself was from the South, he had broken with the segregationists early in his career. ► On July 2, President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 ► All citizens should have equal access to public facilities as parks and libraries and to such private businesses serving the public as restaurants and theatres. ► It forbade discrimination in education and strengthened the right to vote. ► It outlawed job discrimination because of race, sex, religion, or national origin
Voting Rights Act of 1965 ► Helped pave the way for more African Americans to vote. ► Helped other minorities such as Puerto Ricans and Mexicans to vote even if they did not read English.