Presentation on theme: "Events leading to a National Split Chapter 2 Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
Events leading to a National Split Chapter 2 Section 1
Reform and Westward Expansion Reform: to change/make better, improve. 1820s-Voting laws change-all males over 21 (even if they dont own property) can now vote. In some states even free black men can vote. Women, Native Americans, and slaves still unable to vote.
President Andrew Jackson 1828-landslide win! Seen as the common man, Hero of New Orleans and Old Hickory Supported territorial expansion at whatever cost. – Presidential issues #1 Disregarding a Supreme Court decision, he ordered all Native Americans relocated across the Mississippi to the West. Removal Policy Labeled the Trail of Tears-one of the cruelest episodes in mans history. Jacksons view: Better to move them than slaughter them.
Jackson Continued Presidential Issue #2 Growing frustration between state and federal power. – Example: The federal government imposed high tariffs(taxes) on imported products. – The tariffs protected Northern manufacturers by raising the price of foreign produced goods. – Southerners were mad about paying higher prices for imports. – S.C. John Calhoun argued tariffs gave too much authority to federal government and states should have right to nullify, or cancel any fed. Law not in states best interest.
Jackson…Nullify a Federal Law-No Way!! South Carolina passed a law nullifying a federal tariff. Nullification Crisis! Jackson furious!!! Wants Federal troops sent to S. C. to repeal such actions. Congress- eased tensions by lowering the tariff. Major distrust of the federal government is expressed by Southerners.
Religion and Social Reform 1820s Second Great Awakening: As popular as the first. Attracted thousands of religious converts for days or weeks. Great religious expansions and new religions formed. Important: This 2 nd awakening encouraged the belief that people could and should work to achieve a state of moral perfection. Helped bring religious fervor to social reform!!!
Religious Reforms People who now have strong religious beliefs want the government to encourage morality by supporting religion. But what about separation of Church and State? 1830-Sabbatarians urged our government to observe Sunday, the Christian day, as a day of rest. Post office ends service on Sundays. Minority religious groups (like, Roman Catholics, Jews and Mormons) faced discrimination, violence and persecution. People considered non-Christians were prevented from holding public offices. Mormons were persecuted and their leader Joseph Smith was murdered. They fled Illinois in search of a safe haven-which they found in Utah. The Second Great Awakening found people passionate about what seemed right or wrong- And their actions spoke volumes.
Reform in everyday Society Religious zeal worked its magic on society: – Dorthea Dix worked to improve treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill. – Horace Mann worked to improve education – Great authors like Ralph Waldo Emmerson and Margaret Fuller taught that man should follow his conscious. – Henry David Thoreau-people should peacefully refuse to obey laws they considered immoral-called Civil disobedience. – Example: a Sit in, A boycott, A peaceful demonstration, etc. – Thoreau even went to jail for refusing to pay a tax to support a war that he felt encouraged the spread of slavery.
Abolitionists at work What is an abolitionist? – A reformer who sought a gradual or immediate end of slavery. – Why? Because owning another human being was morally wrong and it harmed both the slave (physically and mentally) and the slave owner (eternally) – But…Many Americans, even those who opposed Slavery, knew their prosperity rested on slavery. – Remember: Cotton produced in the South benefitted the textile mills in the North.
Slavery Facts Over 2 million African Americans were human property. Treatment: labored at difficult/backbreaking tasks-sun up to sun down, picking cotton or tobacco, loading freight onto ships, taking care of their masters needs(on the plantation and at the homes) Slaves could be whipped, tortured and sold from their families-all on a whim.
Slaves fight back Over 200 revolts staged by enslaved African Americans between Nat Turners Revolt: 60 White Virginians lay dead Turner later captured, tried (fairly?) and executed. Slave revolts terrified Slave owners and states- this led to harsher treatment. Against the law to teach a slave to read or write.
Abolitionists Say Freedom Now! Heros of the abolitionist movements: Frederick Douglas-a former slave who ran away and found freedom in North. Started an anti-slavery newspaper, became a powerful speaker at meetings. Told stories of awful treatment by masters. Harriet Tubman-fled for freedom from Maryland but returned to help others escape using the underground railroad. She was a conductor and was called the Moses of our People, she led over 300 people to freedom. She worked for the Union army as a cook, a nurse and spy.
William Lloyd Garrison Like Tubman and Douglas, White Bostonian William Lloyd Garrison sought to end slavery. In 1831 Garrison began publishing The Liberator, the most influential abolitionist newspaper. Garrison called for not immediate freedom of all slaves, but full political and social rights for African Americans. Garrison published The Liberator for 35 years and finally stopped after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. People questioned Garrisons idea of immediate freedom…what will we do with all of these freed black men? Garrisons answer… They will assimilate into our societies and be equal in every war…
Women also wanted Reform Women frustrated by limited rights. Cant own property Cant vote or hold offices If divorce occurred-husbands got children If working, pay went to fathers or husbands Colleges and most professions closed to women
Organized Women -Women fight for slave rights-1830s Philadelphia Female Anti- Slavery Society. Women organize for Womens rights: Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Lucretia Mott organized the first womens rights convention in They created the Declaration of Sentiment-modeled after the Dec. of Indep. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal… Susan B. Anthony: For 5 decades worked to give women the right to vote. She illegally cast a ballot in the 1872 Presidential election- arrested, fined and would not say sorry!
Anthony, Stanton and Mott
Back to Expansion Time has passed and Americans expand westward to: – Seek good farmland – Find gold – Find animal furs – Or just for the adventure!!! – 1850 Missouri became the starting point for westward travel using the Santa Fe Trail, the Oregon Trail, The Mormon Trail and the California Trail
Manifest Destiny Journalist John OSullivan, observing the massive travel west reported that American expansion was Manifest Destiny. Manifest= obvious, clear, plain Destiny= Pre-determined Manifest Destiny came to mean that the United States was intended to touch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, as GOD intended.
Manifest Destiny, well ok lets take it all!!! Conflict with Mexico: In 1820 the Mexican government had encouraged Americans to move into Texas-they did, especially Southerners. (with slaves) 1830-American Texans wanted independence from Mexico. In 1836 they got it after a short war. Now Republic of Texas! But what about the Mexican citizens in Texas-they now live in another country!!! Instead of equals they were now 2 nd class citizens.
The Great State of Texas Texas becomes state in Boundary issues with Mexico leads to war, which we win and this time get more land for southwest States and California. This is the first time America doesnt fight for National independence, foreign provocation or global politics!
Mexican War The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo We get: 500,000 square miles of Mexican territory California Arizona Utah Most of New Mexico Parts of Wyoming and Colorado Texas!!! Mexico gets $15 million dollars and its citizens lives are changed forever. Soldiers (American and Mexican)who had known each other and fought together in Texas would soon face each other in battle-on opposite sides!
Gold!!! 1848 Gold discovered in California ers had quickly established campsites and makeshift towns as they staked claim to land plots believed to make them rich. Emigrants from all over the world came to California. Because of the massive population boom, California had enough people to apply for Statehood. Choose to enter as a Free State(no slavery) South was mad!!! This request would inflame the national conflict over slavery.
California Free State, Now who will be Next Slave State Land received from Mexico was massive- The Wilmot Proviso was proposed by a Penn. Congressman. The Wilmot Proviso stated that although slavery could continue in the South, it would not be allowed in any new territory received from Mexico. House of Reps. Passes (North had majority) but Senate defeats(Some Northern congressman did not agree)
New political parties emerge Because of the Wilmot Proviso, a rise of Anti- slavery political parties emerge. Free-Soil Party with motto, free soil, free speech, free labor, free men Compromise of 1850-Again trying to ease rising tensions allows California to enter as a Free State, but in the rest of Mexican territory, voters could decide if they would be Free or Slave states. This political approach is called Popular sovereignty –people choose their status.
Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act-REQUIRED citizens to help apprehend runaway slaves. North was opposed and presented an intense resistance. North had to use their resources to help apprehend slaves-cost money and time-and morally, they didnt want to participate in re-enslaving an African American. Some slaves that had been freed for years were subject to seizure and transport back to the South. Tensions between the North and South were rapidly rising.
More Fuel to the Fire Harriet Beacher Stowe writes maybe one of the most important books of our time, Uncle Toms Cabin. This anti-slavery novel was a best seller in North, but South said it presented an unfair picture…? Really? Dred Scott Decision: Supreme Court Rules, Slaves are not people, but property. Slaves-even if moved to a free state are still slaves. Slavery can exist anywhere!!! South happy, North Mad John Brown leads a small group of Black and White abolitionists to seize an arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Believed Violence is the Only Answer to ending slavery-His mission was to inspire others to revolt. His mission failed and he was hung for treason.
The Real Start of The Civil War The Kansas Nebraska Act- remember the Compromise of 1850 said that state citizens could vote for slave or free. Also remember that voting age and requirements were lowered to 21, so many more voters.
Kansas/Nebraska Act Written by Stephen Douglas Divided Nebraska territory into Kansas and Nebraska. People who believe in slave or free flock to vote their belief. Majority Decides Kansas has two governments-1 pro-slavery, 1 against. For months violence (riots, fighting) took hold of Kansas making it known as Bleeding Kansas Kansas enters the Union as a free state
A new political party emerges – Republican Party » Views: » Opposed the extension of Slavery » Abolitionist party: Slavery immoral, slavery stifles business, and the Fugitive Slave Act disrupted state politics. Democratic Party (Started by Andrew Jackson) -Party of Slavery -Ideas of Majority rule -The average person can run and serve in government.
Lincoln-Douglas Debate 1858 Debate in Senate Republican Abraham Lincoln vs. Democrat Stephen Douglas Lincoln: Intention was never to end slavery, but it would not expand! Douglas: let the people choose what they want-popular sovereignty. Douglas wins debate
And the South Secedes Presidential ticket: Rep. Lincoln VS. Northern democrat Stephen Douglas and Southern democrat John Breckinridge. The outcome? Well the democrats are divided and the majority of votes goes to Lincoln. *Won 18 north and western free states. Only 40% of Popular vote and 60% of electoral vote. South so mad it secedes(breaks away) on December 20, 1860.