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1 Home Energy Solutions Easy Ways to Help Yourself Donna Coffin, UMaine Extension Educator.

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1 1 Home Energy Solutions Easy Ways to Help Yourself Donna Coffin, UMaine Extension Educator

2 2 Direct Energy Use- Household How We Use Energy in Our Homes in the Northeast Heating accounts for the biggest chunk of a typical utility bill. Source: Building Energy Data Book, Table : 2001 Energy End-Use for an Average Household by region

3 3 How the Rest of the Country Stays Warm How Maine Stays Warm Source: Historical Census of Housing – House Heating Fuel – 2000: accessed 8/20/08 A recent Maine Lung Association survey indicated the 48% or Maine households intend to use wood stoves or pellet stoves as the main source or supplemental source of heat this winter.

4 4 Home Heat Loss Averages Infiltration/Air Leakage: 35% Windows and Doors: 18%-20% Floors and Below Grade Space: 15%-18% Walls: 12%-14% Ceilings: 10% Heat loss from a house

5 5 Do You Need a Certified Audit? Certified auditor list ENERGYAuditServices.aspx Online self audit Home Energy Evaluation check list /checklist.htm

6 6 Step One Assess what you have Measure or estimate the size of the house Measure or estimate the size of the windows Use one years worth of utility bills to estimate total energy use for the year

7 7 DIY Evaluation Things to check: 1.Joints and Penetrations – caulk 2.Insulation – enough? 3.Ventilation – to let excess moisture out 4.Ductwork – wrap pipes with insulation 5.Doors and Windows – seal, pull curtains, indoor shutters 6.Heating & Cooling Systems – clean upgrade? 7.Appliances – upgrade 8.Water Heating – insulate tank 9.Lighting – fluorescent

8 8 Step Two Calculate the heating costs Btu per Standard Heating Unit Use the mBtu to calculate savings mBtu = million Btu = 1,000,000 Btu

9 9 Heat content of fuel FuelHeat Content (BTUs) Per Unit Oil #2138,500gallon Electricity3,413Kwh Propane (bottled gas) 92,500gallon Hardwood (dry)24,000,000Cord Softwood (dry)15,000,000Cord Wood Pellets16,000,000Ton

10 10 Efficiency of Fuel Burning Systems Fuel SystemAnnual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Burner Fuel (#2)65% to 90% Electricity100% Propane (bottled gas)95% Wood50% to 70% Wood Pellets80%

11 11 Heat Cost Comparisons Formula for cost per million BTU (Cost per unit of fuel ($) x 1,000,000) divided by (Energy content per unit of fuel (BTU) and the product of this divided by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency of your heating appliance FuelCost per unit Cost per million BTUs Electricity$0.16/KWH$47 Oil #2 (65% AFUE) $3.50/gallon$39 Hardwood (dry)$285/cord$24

12 12 Human Thermal Comfort is determined by six variables: air temperature air velocity relative humidity clothing metabolic rate (activity level) mean radiant temperature Fanger, P.O., Thermal Comfort, McGraw Hill C., 1972, pag 256.

13 13 Low cost ways to save energy Personal attitude & behavior Wear layered warm clothes indoors during winter Take short showers instead of baths Close windows & doors (train family) Apartments and Homes

14 14 No Cost… Low Cost Reducing heating costs –Turn down thermostat –Unblock heating and return air vents –Place reflectors behind radiators –Leave south-facing window curtains open in winter and closed in summer to collect or prevent solar heat gain. Apartments and Homes

15 15 No Cost… Low Cost More Keeping Warm Tips –Clean and inspect furnace annually –Clean heating ducts and registers –Use foil tape to repair heating ducts –Use ceiling fans to circulate warm air –Check hot air furnace filters every 1 to 3 months –Close off unused rooms * * Caution with baseboard heating systems Apartments and Homes

16 16 Caulking & Weather Stripping Caulking and Weatherstripping will payback in one year and make you more comfortable

17 17 Storm Windows & Banking House Plastic sheeting Tar paper Bags of leaves Bales of straw or hay Solid foam board Combination Windows Glass Storm Windows Plastic Storm Windows (outside or inside)

18 18 Effect of Window Treatments Apartments and Homes

19 19 Using Window Treatments Heavy Drapes Roman Shades Insulation Boards Apartments and Homes

20 20 Door Draft Stoppers Window Draft Snakes Fill with –foam pipe insulation –Sand –Plastic bags Apartments and Homes

21 21 No Cost… Low Cost Apartments and Homes Water Heating –Turn down temperature on hot water heater (110 o to 120 o F) –Drain a few gallons from the bottom of your hot water heating tank –If leaving for more than two days, turn off water heater –Install low flow showerheads and aerators in your faucets –Repair all leaking faucets –Insulate your water heater* and supply pipes *not recommended to insulate gas water heaters

22 22 Low Cost – No Cost Apartments and Homes Lighting –Keep lights clean; shut off when not in use –Compact florescent bulbs –Timers Other appliances –Use power strip for computer, television, VCR, recorders, satellite, etc. so you can turn them off completely when not in use.

23 23 Holiday Lighting… Light Emitting Diode (LED) *typical amount of lighting used on the exterior and interior for one holiday season. ** Assuming 240 hours of use (6 hours of use for 40 days) at an electric rate of $0.16.kWh) Bulb TypeNo. Feet Used* Energy Usage (watts) Av. Operating Cost** C $547 C7 LED $18 Mini Incandescent $141 LED Mini 50067$11 Apartments and Homes

24 24 Save energy in the kitchen Match pan size to heating element When cooking small meal, use microwave, crock pot or toaster oven Use the smallest pan necessary for the job Keep the lid on to hold in heat Reduce cooking time by defrosting food in refrigerator first Avoid looking in the oven as you cook! Source:You Can Do It! Low Cost No Cost Saving Tips, Slide Notes, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Apartments and Homes

25 25 Refrigerator / Freezer –Remove frost from freezer –Replace worn gaskets –Keep full –Clean the coils Consider replacing appliances that are over 20 years old and/or in need of major repairs with energy star models Apartments and Homes

26 26 Save energy while doing dishes Use energy saving cycles Use no-heat dry cycle Dont pre-rinse Wash full loads Load dishes according to manufacturers instructions If washing dishes by hand, turn water on only to rinse Apartments and Homes

27 27 Save energy in the laundry room Use lower temperature settings Wash in cold water whenever possible Load the washer to capacity Dont over dry clothes Dry two or more loads in a row Clean dryer filter after each use Dry full loads Clean exhaust vents Hang clothes outside! Source: You Can Do It! Low Cost No Cost Saving Tips, Slide Notes, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Apartments and Homes

28 28 Programmable Thermostats More convenient and accurate than manual thermostats and: Improve comfort Contain no mercury Save energy and money on utility bills Save 1% annually for each degree setback for 8 hours per day

29 29 Significant Initial Cost Add insulation to walls and ceiling Replace/add ventilation systems Replace doors and windows with NFRC- rated ones (National Fenestration Rating Council) Replace heating systems and air conditioners with Energy Star-rated ones Alternative fuels and heat sources Other energy alternatives

30 30 Insulation Maine R-value Recommendations Ceilings/attics: R-38 to R-49 Walls: R-13 to R-21 Floor over Crawl Space: R-25 to R-30 Crawl Space Wall : R-19 Slab edge : R-8 Basement Wall : –R-11 (interior) R-10 (exterior)

31 31

32 32 R- Value of a Wall Section

33 33 Example: Annual Energy Costs Increase Attic Insulation Cost R-27Cost R-47 Fuel Costs (6% estimate savings) $2,408$2,268 Insulation (40 packs of lose fill $8.88) $355 Savings estimate$145 per year Time to pay back insulation costs 2.5 years

34 34 Insulation with ventilation to prevent ice dams

35 35 Furnace or Boiler AFUE Rating Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) AFUE is the measurement of a furnaces heating efficiency Energy Star= AFUE of 90% or above AFUE of 97% is available

36 36 Dollar Savings per $100 of Annual Fuel Cost AFUE of new System 80%85%90%95% 50%$38$41$44$47 55%$31$35$39$42 60%$25$29$33$37 65%$19$24$28$32 70%$13$18$22$26 75%$6$12$17$21 80%$6$11$16 85%$6$11 Amann, J. T, A. Wilson, & K. Ackerly, Consumer Guide to Home Energy Savings, 9 th edition, AFUE of Existing System

37 37 Return on Investment (RIO) Old System (65% eff.) New System (90% eff.) Current Annual Fuel Costs $3,800 Cost of installing a new system $5,000 Annual Savings per $100 fuel costs $28 * 38 = $1,064 ROI = Annual Savings / Cost of New System $1,064 / $5,000 = 0.21 or 21% ROI Payback period is 5 years.

38 38 Supplement Current Heating System After servicing, cleaning and tuning up your current heating system you might consider a supplement heating system –Electric space heater to use when you are in one room –Wood stove or pellet stove used when you are home to heat one or more rooms –Passive solar collector attached to a window to provide supplemental heat to a south facing room.

39 39 Pros and Cons of Different Fuels and Energy Sources Easy to use Inexpensive to use No additional equipment required Minimal mechanical knowledge required to operate Low risk of fire, smoke or carbon monoxide Restricted to certain sites due to sun, wind or water resources No widespread infrastructure to service equipment Complicated operating understanding Physical needs to carry and store fuel Insurance implications

40 40 Compare Heating Fuels and Heat Distribution Systems Fuels –Oil –Natural gas –Propane –Electricity –Hardwood –Softwood –Wood pellets Heat Distribution Systems –Hot air –Hot water –Radiant heat Radiators Radiant floor or ceiling –Space heating

41 41 Wood Heat Check chimney to be sure it can support you wood stove. Install with proper clearance from combustible materials. Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors to protect your family Use dry hardwood to stoke you stove Use care when closing off the damper or air supply to the fire. It can cause excess creosote production.

42 42 Evolution of Heating by wood Fireplace Fireplace stove insert Masonry Heater Russian Fireplace Wood stove –1990 EPA particulate emission standards Catalytic converter wood stove Secondary burn wood stove Wood furnace – hot air Wood boiler – hot water Outdoor wood boiler –www.epa.gov/woodheaters Pellet stove

43 43 Passive Solar Building faces south Unobstructed view of sun Consider with new construction

44 44 Window Passive Solar Collector for more ideas Apartments and Homes

45 45 Active Solar Thermal Heating Need electricity to circulate heated fluid

46 46 Solar Electric Solar electric systems, also known as photovoltaic (PV) systems, convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cellsthe basic building blocks of a PV systemconsist of semiconductor materials. When sunlight is absorbed by these materials, the solar energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms. This phenomenon is called the "photoelectric effect." These free electrons then travel into a circuit built into the solar cell to form electrical current.Solar cells city/index.cfm/mytopic=10720http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/electri city/index.cfm/mytopic=10720 Maine Solar Energy Association –http://ellsworthme.org/MESEA/http://ellsworthme.org/MESEA/

47 47 Heat Pump Ground source systems have usually been installed in Maine. Air source systems may not work as well in our cold climate but new technology is being developed to make it more practical for Maine. Need electricity to circulate heated fluid

48 48 Small Windmill for ME? You have enough wind –Wind analysis of your site with a years worth of data Tall towers allowed in your area? You have enough space for your tower Certified Electrician may be necessary for loans or rebates or if you plan to connect your system to power grid

49 49 You determine how much electricity you need/want –Av. Home needs a 5 to 15 kw turbine –$3,000 to $5,000 per kilowatt generated Need battery storage and alternative backup for windless days Determine if it works economically for you A good reference for developing a home windmill site: mall_wind_me.pdf Small Windmill for ME? cont.

50 50 How Do I Pay For Energy Improvements? Own savings Low income assistance –CAP Agencies –Area Aging Agencies Loans –Banks –Rural Development Tax savings Incentives / Rebates Renting a room or part of the house?

51 51 Previous Tax Incentives Home Improvement Tax Credits –Windows and doors –Roofing –Insulation –HVAC –Water heaters –Energy efficient cars and trucks –Solar, wind, geothermal energy Watch for future tax incentives for energy improvements

52 52 Energy Resources default.htmhttp://www.extension.umaine.edu/energy/ default.htm tips/ Please take a few minutes to complete a program evaluation


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