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1 Saving Home Energy Easy Ways to Help Yourself Part 1

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2 Direct Energy Use- Household How We Use Energy in Our Homes in the Northeast Heating accounts for the biggest chunk of a typical utility bill. Source: Building Energy Data Book, Table : 2001 Energy End-Use for an Average Household by region

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3 How America Stays Warm Household Heating Systems Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of Americans use natural gas.

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4 How the Rest of the Country Stays Warm How Maine Stays Warm Source: Historical Census of Housing – House Heating Fuel – 2000: accessed 8/20/08 A recent Maine Lung Association survey indicated the 48% or Maine households intend to use wood stoves or pellet stoves as the main source or supplemental source of heat this winter.

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5 Home Heat Loss Averages Infiltration/Air Leakage: 35% Windows and Doors: 18%-20% Floors and Below Grade Space: 15%-18% Walls: 12%-14% Ceilings: 10% Heat loss from a house

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6 Do You Need a Certified Audit? Certified auditor list ENERGYAuditServices.aspx Online self audit Home Energy Evaluation check list /checklist.htm

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7 EVALUATION CHECKLIST FOR HOME ENERGY USE Name:_________________ Housing: House_____ Apartment_____ Condo______ Mobile home______ Approximate square feet ________ Energy Source: Energy usage: units used per year Energy cost per unit JOINTS AND PENETRATIONSYesNoComments With draft detector (incense stick, feather, tissue taped to stick) check for drafts at outside openings, cracks and air leaks between house and foundation and in cellar or crawl space. Drafts observed? Cracks in walls and foundations sealed and holes plugged in? Broken windows, rotted boards, and window sashes fixed and in good repair? Insulated curtains or sealable window shutters or shades in use?

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8 Step One Assess what you have Measure or estimate the size of the house Measure or estimate the size of the windows Use one years worth of utility bills to estimate total energy use for the year

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9 Do-It-Yourself Assessment Things to check: 1.Joints and Penetrations (infiltration) 2.Insulation (heat loss and gain) 3.Ventilation (crawl space and attics) 4.Ductwork 5.Doors and Windows 6.Heating & Cooling Systems 7.Appliances 8.Water Heating 9.Lighting

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10 window air leakage and caulking video

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11 Insulation R-value: thermal resistance which indicates the resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating effectiveness. The R- value depends on the type of material, its thickness, and its density. U-value or coefficient of heat transmission: Measurement of ability to pass heat through materials or combination of materials U = 1/R R = 1/U R-value and U-value are inverse of each other

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12 R-Values Measure the insulation in the attic To check walls: –Turn off power to an outlet –Remove cover –Pull out small amount of insulation –Check several outlets Ceilings & Attics: R-38 to R-49 Walls: R-13 to R-21 Floor over unheated crawl space: R-25 to R-30 Crawl space wall: R-19 Slab edge: R-8 Basement Wall: R-10 to R-11

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13 R-Values Measure the insulation in the attic To check walls: –Turn off power to an outlet –Remove cover –Pull out small amount of insulation –Check several outlets Ceilings & Attics: R-49 to R-60 Walls: R-13 to R-21 Floor over unheated crawl space: R-25 to R-30 Crawl space wall: R-25 Slab edge: R-12 Basement Wall: R-11 to R-15

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14 Building Material R-value Comparison (see handout) Material:R-Value /inch Softwoods1.25 Wood Siding0.79 Concrete Blocks 0.58 Gypsum Board (1/2) 0.45 Brick0.20 Concrete0.08 Wood Paneling 0.31 Material:R-Value /inch Foams (rigid boards) Blankets / Batts Loose Fill2 - 4 Sprayed Foam in place Plywood1.25

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16 R- Value of a Wall Section

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17 DIY Evaluation Things to check: 1.Joints and Penetrations – caulk 2.Insulation – enough? 3.Ventilation – to let excess moisture out 4.Ductwork – wrap pipes with insulation 5.Doors and Windows – seal, pull curtains, indoor shutters 6.Heating & Cooling Systems – clean upgrade? 7.Appliances – upgrade 8.Water Heating – insulate tank 9.Lighting – fluorescent

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18 Step Two Calculate the heating costs Btu per Standard Heating Unit Use the mBtu to calculate savings mBtu = million Btu = 1,000,000 Btu

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19 Definition: BTU A British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree F. This is the standard measurement used to state the amount of energy that a fuel has as well as the amount of output of any heat generating device.

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20 Heat content of fuel FuelHeat Content (BTUs) Per Unit Oil #2138,500gallon Electricity3,413Kwh Propane (LP gas)92,500gallon Hardwood (dry)24,000,000Cord Softwood (dry)15,000,000Cord Wood Pellets16,000,000Ton

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21 Efficiency of Fuel Burning Systems Fuel SystemAnnual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Burner Fuel (#2)65% to 90% Electricity100% Propane (bottled gas)95% Wood50% to 70% Wood Pellets80%

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22 Heat Cost Comparisons Formula for cost per million BTU (Cost per unit of fuel ($) x 1,000,000) divided by (Energy content per unit of fuel (BTU) and the product of this divided by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency of your heating appliance FuelCost per unitCost per million BTUs Electricity$0.16/KWH$47 Oil #2 (65% AFUE) $3.50/gallon $2.34/gallon $39 $26 Hardwood (dry)$285/cord $190/cord $24 $10

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23 Calculating How Many MBtu Used in a Year Example #2 Oil: (# gallons oil X 138,500 Btu/gal) /1,000,000 = # MBtu /Y (500 gal X 138,500 MBtu/gal)/1,000,000 = 69 MBtu/Y Cost of oil $2.34 / gallon = $1,170 / Y Furnace efficiency of 65% = 45 MBtu / Y

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24 Should I Use Hardwood?. Example: MBtu * 1,000,000 used for heat divided by # BTU/cord divided by the efficiency of the stove= equivalent cords needed to provide heat 80% efficient furnace: 45 MBtu * (1,000,000/24,000,000)/.8 = 2.3 cords Cost of $190/cord = $437/Y Compared to oil at $1,170/Y

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25 Example Calculations Fuel Oil today = $2.34/gallon 2.34 x 1,000,000 = 2,340,000 Fuel Oil has 138,500 BTUs/Gallon 2,340,000 / 138,500 = /.65% efficiency = 25.99/mBtu Formula for cost per million BTU (Cost per unit of fuel ($) x 1,000,000) divided by (Energy content per unit of fuel (BTU) and the product of this divided by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency of your heating appliance

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26 Example Calculations Franks Firewood = $190/cord 190 x 1,000,000 = 190,000,000 Hardwood has 24,000,000 BTUs/cord 190,000,000/24,000,000 = /.80% efficiency = $9.89 mBTU

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28 Example: Annual Energy Costs Increase Attic Insulation Cost R-27Cost R-47 Fuel Costs (15% estimate savings) $2,408$2,268 Insulation (40 packs of loose fill $8.88) $355 Savings estimate$140 per year Time to pay back insulation costs 2.5 years

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29 Financial Incentives Home Energy Loan Program (HELP) –Low income home owners –Improve efficiencies &/or replacements –3.95% loan up to $30,000 –www.mainehousing.orgwww.mainehousing.org Compact Fluorescent Bulbs –Instant rebate at store $2 to $12 –www.efficiencymaine.com Residential Energy Efficiency Tax Credit –Improve efficiencies and/or replacements including stoves that use biomass. –Amount of credit is 30% of cost for all technologies placed in service in 2009 and 2010 combined up to $1,500 –www.irs.govwww.irs.gov

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30 Energy Resources edu/energy/default.htmhttp://www.extension.umaine. edu/energy/default.htm consumer/ tips/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ consumer/ tips/

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