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1 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Identifying and Air Sealing the Building Envelope WEATHERIZATION.

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Presentation on theme: "1 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Identifying and Air Sealing the Building Envelope WEATHERIZATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Identifying and Air Sealing the Building Envelope WEATHERIZATION INSTALLER/TECHNICAN FUNDAMENTALS WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012

2 2 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Learning Objectives By attending this session, participants will be able to: Differentiate between the thermal and pressure boundaries and describe the behavior and function of each. Summarize basic principles of air leakage. Identify the proper location of the pressure and thermal boundaries. Identify common sites and signals of breaks in the pressure and thermal boundaries. Identify common air sealing materials and their characteristics. (continued on next slide)

3 3 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Learning Objectives By attending this session, participants will be able to: Explain what is meant by inside and outside in terms of air barrier and how a blower door is used to determine that. Identify typical construction details that lead to gaps in pressure and thermal boundaries and know how to treat them. Describe treatment options for walk-up attics.

4 4 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov A comfortable, safe, and energy-efficient home requires: A fully insulated thermal envelope or thermal boundary. A well-sealed air barrier. Continuous thermal boundaries and air barriers that are in contact with one another. Efficient, properly sized equipment to condition the living space and heat water. A well-designed and balanced air distribution system. Healthy indoor air quality. Comfort, Safety and Efficiency IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

5 5 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Typical Air-Leakage Image courtesy of ENERGY STAR IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

6 6 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Primary Air Infiltration Sites Data courtesy of the California Energy Commission 5% Fans and vents 12% Windows 13% Doors 15% Plumbing penetrations Fireplaces 16% Electrical outlets 2% Floors, walls, and ceilings 36% IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

7 7 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Check typical hot spots Flues and plumbing vents Wire pathways Recessed fixtures (lights and fans) Chimney penetrations Signals Blower door, smoke Dirty or discolored insulation Finding Air Leaks Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

8 8 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Thermal Boundaries & Air Barriers For maximum efficiency and comfort, the thermal boundaries and air barriers must be continuous and in contact with each other. Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

9 9 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The Thermal Boundary Limits heat flow between inside and outside. Is easily identifiable by presence of insulation. The location of insulation in relation to other building components is critical to its effectiveness. Even small areas of missing insulation are very important. Voids of 7% can reduce effective R-value by almost 50%. The Thermal Boundary IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Dr. Energy Savers

10 10 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Thermal Boundaries are Obvious Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

11 11 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Air Barrier Limits air flow between inside and outside. Is more difficult to identify. Is not always where you think it is. A blower door is used to locate the air barrier. Air Barrier IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

12 12 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Thermal Boundaries & Air Barriers Thermal Boundary Air Barrier An uninsulated attic hatch is a gap in the attics thermal boundary. Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

13 13 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov PRESSURE & THERMAL BOUNDARIES Photo courtesy of NRCERT

14 14 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Air Barrier A mechanical chase containing ducts can break the attics air barrier. Thermal Boundary Air Barrier Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

15 15 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Moisture Thermal Boundary Air Barrier Moisture flows with warm air through breaks in the air barrier, causing damage when it condenses on cool surfaces. Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

16 16 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov PRESSURE & THERMAL BOUNDARIES Photo courtesy of NRCERT

17 17 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov PRESSURE & THERMAL BOUNDARIES Photo courtesy of NRCERT

18 18 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov PRESSURE & THERMAL BOUNDARIES Photo courtesy of NRCERT

19 19 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov PRESSURE & THERMAL BOUNDARIES Photo courtesy of NRCERT

20 20 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Other construction details can result in gaps in pressure and thermal barriers. Changes in ceiling height Knee-wall attics Walk-up attics Construction Details Dropped soffits o Above kitchen cabinets o In bathrooms o Above vanities o Above built-ins o At duct chases/bulkheads IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

21 21 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Changes in Ceiling Height Conditioned Space Conditioned Space Attic Not only is the top of the wall uninsulated... IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Anthony Cox

22 22 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Changes in Ceiling Height The interior wall cavities act as a chimney that robs the house of heat and conditioned air. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphics courtesy of Anthony Cox

23 23 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Changes in Ceiling Height Open Wall Cavity Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

24 24 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Knee-Wall Attics Main Attic Knee-wall Attic Open Wall Cavities IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Anthony Cox

25 25 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Dropped Soffits Kitchen wall cabinets mounted under soffit or valance IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Anthony Cox

26 26 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Dropped Soffits Attic insulation can hide dropped soffits. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Anthony Cox

27 27 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Photo courtesy of NRCERT

28 28 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Dropped Soffits If you see soffit- mounted cabinets, remember to investigate during attic inspection. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic courtesy of Anthony Cox

29 29 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Vent pipe for kitchen exhaust fan helps locate area over kitchen cabinets. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

30 30 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Open Wall Cavities A closer look reveals a dropped soffit and misaligned pressure and thermal boundaries. Photo Source: US Department of Energy

31 31 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Where Is the Air Barrier? Cape Cod 1½ Story House Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

32 32 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Where Is the Air Barrier? Targeted air sealing defines air barrier Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

33 33 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Where Is the Air Barrier? Pressure and thermal boundaries now aligned Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

34 34 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Plumbing pipe and dirty insulation are clues… …that an attic bypass is allowing air flow through the insulation. Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy

35 35 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov An innocent looking fireplace and built-in china cabinet… Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

36 36 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov …hides an attic bypass you can park a car in. The client wondered why her silverware got cold in the winter. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

37 37 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Gaps 1/4 Caulk General Guidelines Energy Blast Services The Daily Green Gaps 1/4 – 3 Spray foam Other Foam board, fiberglass in plastic bags, etc. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE US Dept. of Energy

38 38 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Sometimes sealing air leaks requires repairing damaged drywall. Drywall Repair Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

39 39 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The hole is capped at the level of the attic floor and sealed with the two-part foam. The hole is capped at the level of the attic floor and sealed with the two-part foam. Shielding prevents blown-in cellulose insulation from touching the chimney. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

40 40 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

41 41 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Changes in Ceiling Height In older homes the ceiling level changes in closets, causing gaps in the pressure and thermal boundaries. The uninsulated bedroom and bathroom walls are exposed to outdoor temperatures. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

42 42 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Changes in Ceiling Height New insulation will be blown over the repaired pressure boundary and the existing insulation. The pressure boundary is re-established by capping the hole with foam board at the same level as the rest of the attic and air sealing. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE

43 43 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The pressure and thermal boundaries are now continuous and in contact with each other. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

44 44 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Walk-Up Attics Where Is the Pressure Boundary? Where Should It Be? IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

45 45 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov If the client does not use the attic often: Walk-Up Attics An insulated, airtight cover can be installed on top of the stairwell. The pressure and thermal boundaries are aligned at the level of the attic floor. This approach brings the stairwell into the conditioned space. It is also cheaper and faster than the alternative. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

46 46 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov If the client uses the attic fairly often: Walk-Up Attics The pressure and thermal boundaries must be established at the stairs, stairwell walls, and door to the attic stairs. This approach leaves the stairwell open to the attic and outside the conditioned space. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula

47 47 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Since these attic stairs were used often, it was better for the client to keep the stairwell outside, which means dense-packing the stairwell walls with insulation. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

48 48 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

49 49 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The door is insulated and weather-stripped. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

50 50 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The final step in aligning the pressure and thermal boundaries is to insulate and air seal the stairs. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

51 51 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov The spray foam must be covered since it is located within the living space. Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy

52 52 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012eere.energy.gov Summary For maximum efficiency and comfort, the thermal and pressure boundaries must be continuous and in contact with one another. Electrical and mechanical chases, missing top plates, knee walls, dropped soffits, and changes in ceiling height are common trouble spots. Targeted air sealing defines the pressure boundary. IDENTIFYING & AIR SEALING THE BUILDING ENVELOPE


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