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Changing attitudes with new learning methods Serious games and e-learning Eline Leen Innovation in Learning Institute University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

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Presentation on theme: "Changing attitudes with new learning methods Serious games and e-learning Eline Leen Innovation in Learning Institute University of Erlangen-Nuremberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Changing attitudes with new learning methods Serious games and e-learning Eline Leen Innovation in Learning Institute University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

2 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan 1.New learning methods: - E-Learning and blended learning - computer based serious games as special form of E-Learning - Example: CAVA e-Learning course for teachers 2.Changing attitudes: Why and how? 3.Changing attitudes with serious games: a good idea? Outline © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

3 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Definition: E-learning is a learning method which uses electronical or digital media for the presentation and distribution of learning material or/and as a support for communication in the learning context (Kerres, 2001) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Learning with e-learning

4 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan A combination of e-learning and face-to-face learning (Margie, 2003) Blended learning © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

5 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Studies show that students learn better with e-learning than face- to-face (Means, Toyama, Murphy & Bakia, 2009) E-learning is flexible in time and place Learning material that is already known or less relevant can be skipped (personalized paths) Everything can be rehearsed as often as one wants or needs -> Learning in your own time Media elements can enrich the learning material (Videos, Audio, Links) Communication /collaboration tools can be added (forum, chat, ) to enhance exchange between learners and with tutors Gaming elements can be added © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Advantages of using e-learning

6 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan No direct face to face contact with teachers/tutors and other learners -> some learners might miss direct social contact Blended learning might be a solution Self-regulated learning skills are required -> not all learners already have them E-Learning material with only reading material etc. might not add much to classical learning forms -> Multimedia elements should be added © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Disadvantages of using e-learning

7 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Encourage interaction of the learner: communication between learners, feedback with tutor, self-tests Encourage self-regulated learning strategies (when, how, where and to some extent what to learn) Reflection of learned content (summary and test at the end of every learning unit) Appropriate, appealing design for the target group Evaluation of the material and the course on a regular basis These principles should be integrated in the CAVA e-learning and serious game material © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Principles for good e-learning material (Dain, Dincic & Wheeler, 2007, Rivera & Roland, 2008)

8 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Serious games Definition: Serious games try to connect playing with learning. They are used to train social, intellectual or emotional skills. Today serious games are usually computer based. (Kerres, Bormann & Vervenne, 2009) In school serious games are usually blended learning programs, not purely e-learning When serious games are played in school, students usually need to apply their science or language skills to solve problems like building a new city or rescue the world. In an engaging and entertaining way students learn how to apply their knowledge in a new context. © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

9 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Social skills can be trained with serious games (team work, making friends, taking care of others) (Brezinka, Götz & Suter, 2007) Treatment of psychological problems: The game creates a save environment where threats and worries are not present in reality (Coyle, 2004) Example: Earthquake in Zipland: Helps children to cope with divorce © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Serious games

10 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Interactivity: This can lead to a greater attention and to a deeper learner process Motivation: if the game is entertaining and engaging, the students are intrinsically motivated to master the game Autonomy: when students can play on their own, they can decide the speed of learning etc. Safe environment: The students can try out different behavior in a safe environment without consequences Emotion: Games can create different emotions better than by only reading/hearing about a topic Identification: Adolescents can identify themselves easier with an avatar than with a teacher © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Advantages of using serious games in school (Stapelton, 2004, Behr, Klimmt & Vorderer, 2008)

11 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Negative aspects of gaming in general: should gaming be enforced in school? Acceptance: Games are less favored by female teenagers (depends on the content of the game) Accessibility: Enough computers are needed Time: Playing games in school takes a lot of time Only game playing is not enough: Reflecting after playing is necessary! Attractiveness: If the game is not appealing to the students, motivation and emotional attachment to the topic might be low! © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Disadvantages of using serious games in school

12 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan New Learning Methods in CAVA An e-Learning platform for teachers Giving the teachers all relevant information Possibility to learn in their own time and comfortable Adding helpful material like PDFs, Handouts and useful links A serious game for adolescents Not only information, but also enough input to change attitudes of adolescents Also emotional and behavioral components need to be addressed more than just a platform with material is needed © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

13 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Online self-registration for all interested teachers via CAVA website ( ) (coming soon!)www.cavaproject.eu 4 courses in 4 languages 4 Modules per course 1.Introduction into the use of the platform 2.How to use the CAVA game in class and lesson material 3.Background information about dating violence in adolescents 4.Background information about serious games Forum for teachers in all courses Printable material (Handouts etc.) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Example: The CAVA e-learning platform

14 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Teachers need to feel save to work with the game and with the topic of dating violence -> A game without the acceptance of the teachers is worthless because it is not used in schools Therefore material and possibilities to discuss and ask questions is necessary ->teacher training concept Why a CAVA E-Learning Platform for Teachers? © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2011

15 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Link to the English course: CAVA English course The links to all the courses will be available soon on the CAVA website! © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Example: The CAVA e-learning platform

16 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Website E-Learning platform Learning material for teachers Communication tools for teachers Serious game for adolescents The CAVA Package © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2011

17 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Attitudes are the evaluations and associated beliefs and behaviors towards an object/topic (McGuire, Lindzey & Aronson, 1985) With attitudes we can categorize/structure our environment and our experiences -> important function for daily life They are not stable They are learned and based on experiences and assumptions Components of attitudes: 1. Cognitive (thoughts, ideas, beliefs) 2. Affective (emotions, feelings) 3. Behavioral (tendency to act in a certain way) (4. Social: influence of others) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Changing Attitudes What are attitudes?

18 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Our main aim in the CAVA (changing attitudes to dating violence in adolescents) project is to change attitudes towards dating violence in adolescents if necessary The adolescents should not only know why dating violence is wrong But also belief this Act like this -> behavior can only be changed if attitudes are changed (interventions that change behavior is most effective) Develop new values if necessary Why is changing attitudes important? © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

19 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan 3 different processes are possible (Kolman, 1938) 1.Compliance: Change of behavior changes because of expectation of a certain reward: Attitudes are not necessarily changed only the visible behavior is 2.Identification: Change of attitudes because of identification with the attitudes of somebody the person admires (e.g. Children adopt attitudes of older siblings) 3.Internalization: the attitude is intrinsically rewarding: Real attitude change the attitude fits into the value system of someone © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Changing Attitudes Base for attitudes change:

20 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Usually only new information is not enough to change attitudes: Emotion is also important: Positive feelings/emotions in favor of the new attitude are created or negative feelings against the old attitude E.g. Advertising often uses this: e.g. Advertising against smoking (facts and pictures that produce fear and a negative attitude) Identification with the messenger of the new attitude can influence emotions about attitudes, too (I like the messenger, he might have an attitude towards something I might like too) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Changing Attitudes Influence of Emotions:

21 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan The source / the messenger needs to be: Believable Proficient It helps if a messenger is similar to the receptor of the message If helps if a messenger is liked by the receptor And: The receptor needs to be open towards new attitudes! Changing Attitudes: © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

22 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan True attitude change only happens if cognitive and affective components are addressed (Berkowitz, 1989) This means that only information or a lesson is not enough to change attitudes, but that also emotions should be addressed A serious game might help here! © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Attitude change The Elaboration Likelihood Model

23 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Persuasion is an attempt to change attitudes: Process of persuasion ( McGuire, 1989): Adapting new attitudes and behavior is a complicated process that takes some time! The new attitude has to be integrated in existing value systems! © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Changing attitues with persuasion Attention & Interest Understanding & Learning Approval & change of attitudes Maintain new attitudes Adapt behaviour

24 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Experience of unease/ guilt if two linked attitudes are inconsistent or it an attitude and behavior do not match people are motivated to change one attitude or behavior to reach consistency (Festinger, 1957) Example: Someone smokes and knows it is not healthy: stops (changes behavior) or changes attitude (it wont harm me because I do a lot of sports) Example: Someone knows violence is not good: stops or changes attitude (it is not good but what I do is not really violent as long as I only insult my girlfriend and do not hit her) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Cognitive Dissonance Theory

25 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan Attention and interest: Game has to be appealing / interesting for the target group The new attitudes must be understood (cognitive component): Game has to be informative Emotions need to be addressed (positive emotions towards not using dating violence): Game has to create positive emotions Intrinsically rewarding (fit into existing values or value system needs to be adapted too) Acceptance of new attitudes is important: Identification with the avatars/ messenger of the game Behavior that fits to positive attitudes against dating violence should be practiced in the game © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Changing Attitudes with the CAVA game:

26 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan A game might be better than a lesson with pure information, as more components of an attitude can be addressed with a serious game! But: If the game is not suited for the target group attitudes might not be changed because the emotional and the identification component are not addressed by the game Know your target group! Changing attitudes with the CAVA game © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012

27 March 2nd 2012, CAVA Conference, Trollhättan E-Learning can be a good solution for communicating information to teachers as teachers like the possibility to learn self-regulated in their own time Serious games can be a good way to interest adolescents for serious topics and give them opportunities to try out different behaviors Attitudes against dating violence might be created with a serious game if some principles are fulfilled (appealing, new information, positive emotions, identification, train behavior) © Institut für Lern-Innovation 2012 Summary

28 Thank you very much for your attention! Questions?


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