Presentation on theme: "National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing Session Seven Behavioral Determinant and Theories."— Presentation transcript:
National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing Session Seven Behavioral Determinant and Theories
Session Objectives Describe factors that influence behavior Describe how identification of doers / nondoers can influence decisions List reasons why research to identify behavioral determinants is important Identify potential determinants relevant to their own intervention programs
Questions to Address What determines behavior? How do we explain behavior?
Background Models and Theories
1. Levels of Influence (adapted from Glanz & Rimer, 1995) Individual Factors: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality Interpersonal Factors: social identity, support, roles Institutional Factors: rules, regulations, informal structures Community Factors: social networks, norms Public Policy: regulations/laws
2. Stages of Change Model (Prochaska, et. al., 1992) Precontemplation - unaware of problem Contemplation - thinking about change in near future Decision / Determination - making a plan to change Action - implementation of specific action plans Maintenance - repetition of desired behavior
3. Social Learning / Social Cognition (see Glanz & Rimer, 1995) a.Behavioral capability b.Expectations c.Self-efficacy d.Observational learning e.Reinforcement f.Social support
a. Behavioral Capability Knowledge and skills to influence behavior application: provide information and training about new behavior
b. Expectations Beliefs about likely results of new behavior application: incorporate information about likely results of behavior in advance
c. Self-efficacy Defined: confidence to take action Also known as “personal control” Dimensions: internal / external globality / specificity stability / instability Illusions of control point out strengths use persuasion and encouragement approach behavior change in small steps
d. Observational Learning Beliefs based on observing others like self and / or visible physical results application: point out others’ experiences, physical changes identify role models to emulate
e. Reinforcement Responses to person’s behavior that increase or decrease changes of recurrence application: provide incentives, rewards, praise decrease possibility of negative response that deter positive changes
f. Social Support Defined: communications process that occurs between people, between providers of support and recipients of support, that functions very specifically to help people reduce the uncertainty they face (Albrecht & Adelman, 1987).
a. Relative Advantage Degree to which change is preferable to status quo or competing behaviors application: point out unique benefits of change: convenience, time saving, prestige, etc.
b. Compatibility How consistent new behavior is with values, experience, and needs application: tailor new behavior for the intended audience’s values, norms, and situation
c. Complexity How difficult new behavior is to understand and / or use application: create behavior to be accomplished, easy to perform and understand
d. Trial-ability Extent to which the new behavior can be experimented with before a commitment to adopt is required application: provide opportunities to try on a limited basis with incentives
e. Observability Extent to which the new behavior provides tangible or visible results application: give an expected time assure feasibility of desired results
In Summary: All these theories are different views of why people do what they do these models are complementary some models may be more relevant than others depending on the circumstances and behavior all are useful for asking questions about what influences people
Specific Determinants of Behavior
Which Determines Behavior: Knowledge and skills? Perceived risk? Attitudes / Beliefs? Perceived consequences? Self-efficacy? Other relevant characteristics?
1. Knowledge and Skills What do people know about the program? Do they know how to do the target behavior? Can they access the program or service? What do we need to do to ensure they receive needed information?
2. Perceived Risk Does the target audience believe they are personally susceptible or vulnerable? How severe do they perceive the condition to be?
3. Attitudes What are the attitudes of the target audience? How do they feel about the program, service, or target behavior? Are there rumors in the community which would affect their attitude?
4. Perceived Consequences What does the target audience believe they will gain if they adopt the target behavior? What does the target audience believe they will lose if they adopt the behavior? How can we address this situation?
5. Self-efficacy Defined: An individual’s belief that he/she can do a desired behavior Do consumers believe they can adopt the target behavior? ……successfully?
6. Social Norms Defined: standards of behavior for attitude accepted as usual practice What do consumers perceive the norms to be?
7. Intentions What does the audience already plan to do about the new behavior? How ready are they to change?
8. Demographics Race / Ethnicity Where they live Age / Gender Education Religion Marital status Income Sexual orientation Occupation
9. Other Social-Psychological Determinants Self concept / Self esteem - hopes, fears, aspirations Occupational stress Religiosity Recreation and leisure Social support networks Media habits - what they watch, listen, read - how often? where? when?
In Conclusion… How do we apply all these theories and specific determinants to our audience? turn them into questions… Does self-efficacy affect behavior X? If so, why? If not, why not? make comparisons among groups… rethink the marketing principles with these determinants in mind…what happens? find out what matters: do the research…