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The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

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Presentation on theme: "The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Chapter 5: The Adolescent in Society Case Study: Teen ViolenceTeen Violence Section 1: Understanding AdolescenceUnderstanding Adolescence Section 2: Teenagers and DatingTeenagers and Dating Section 3: Challenges of AdolescenceChallenges of Adolescence Lab: Applying What Youve LearnedApplying What Youve Learned

2 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. In the United States, teens are disproportionately affected by violence. Researchers looking for the answer to why this would be have sometimes focused on media in youth culture. These observers note that the television shows and movies aimed at youth are filled with violence. Other researchers focus on drug use as a source of violence, with one study showing that teens who use drugs are twice as likely to commit violent acts. Whatever the reason for violence, it is clear that violent teens do not transition well into adulthood. Case Study: Teen Violence

3 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

4 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Understanding Adolescence Adolescence refers to a distinct stage of life that occurs between the onset of puberty and adulthood. In the United States, the concept of adolescence is a recent development, resulting from a combination of post- Civil War historical events. The five leading characteristics of adolescence are biological growth and development, an undefined status, increased decision making, increased pressures, and the search for self. Section 1 at a Glance

5 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus How has the concept of adolescence developed as a distinct stage of the life cycle in the United States? What are the five general characteristics of adolescence? Main Idea Adolescence is a time of great change and an important transition to adulthood. Understanding Adolescence

6 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The Adolescent Brain: A Work in Progress How is a teenager's brain different from an adult's brain?

7 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. History Many societies do not include the idea of adolescence. Developments since the Civil War have strengthened the idea of adolescence in the United States and other industrialized nations. Mandatory education, exclusion from the labor force, and separate legal status encourage the idea of adolescence. Definition Adolescence is the period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. Puberty is the physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction. In the United States, it is generally from ages 12 to 19. The Concept of Adolescence

8 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Check Summarize What factors are important to the development of adolescence? Answer: education, the exclusion of youth from the labor force, the development of the juvenile- justice system

9 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Undefined Status Unclear social expectations –Some treated as children, some as adults –Allowed to marry at age 16, vote at age 18, and drink at age 21 –Some adults like adolescent culture, others critical Biological Growth and Development Onset of adolescence marked by beginning of puberty –Specific hormones are released –Growth spurts, voice changes, development of sexual characteristics –Complexion problems Characteristics of Adolescence

10 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Increased Decision Making More decisions must be made by oneself. Increased Pressure Parents, friends, and teachers all pressure adolescents to behave in particular ways. Peer pressure is the strongest. Many teens feel pressure to be in a relationship or find a job. The Search for Self The ability to establish personal norms and priorities is important. Preparing for future roles is one aspect of finding oneself. Anticipatory socialization is learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future.

11 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

12 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: Possible answersearch for self; the search for self requires a lot of personal decision making Draw Conclusions What do you think is the most challenging characteristic of adolescence? Explain. Reading Check

13 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Coming of Age Most cultures mark an adolescents entry into adulthood with a rite of passage. Coming-of-age ceremonies are different across cultures. Cultural Diversity and Sociology Some are informal events such as getting a drivers license. Some are more formal such as a high school graduation. Mexico: A quinceañera marks a girls entry into adulthood Navajo: A Kinaalda is a four-day ceremony marking entry to adulthood Maasai: Boys leave to live in manyatta camps to learn male skills Judaism: A bar or bat mitzvah occurs after much preparation

14 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

15 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Thinking Critically How do these coming-of-age ceremonies differ? What impact do you think coming-of-age ceremonies have on society?

16 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Teenagers and Dating Dating, or the meeting of people as a romantic engagement, is most commonly found in societies that allow people to select their own marriage partners. Before the development of dating in the United States, the courtship system was the most common means through which unmarried men and women interacted. Section 2 at a Glance

17 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Teenagers and Dating Traditional American dating patterns date back to social changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution and new forms of technology. Dating today serves many functions, including entertainment, socialization, the fulfillment of basic psychological needs, the achievement of social status, and the selection of a spouse. Section 2 at a Glance (cont.)

18 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus What are dating and courtship? How did dating emerge as a form of social interaction? What are some of the social functions of dating? How are traditional and contemporary dating patterns different? Main Idea Dating, which has undergone many changes over time, serves important social functions for many teenagers. Teenagers and Dating

19 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. How did a story of teenage love become one of the greatest romantic tragedies of all time?

20 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Dating is a recent phenomenon in the United States. It has become a more common form of interaction between the sexes. Main purpose is entertainment and amusement Can lead to serious relationship and/or marriage Most common method for selecting spouse in modern United States Dating Dating and Courtship Courtship is less flexible than dating Designed to end in marriage Strictly defined roles for both parties Couple rarely left alone Courtship

21 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: Possible answer: bothmeeting and interaction of people as a romantic engagement; courtshipstrictly defined roles, ultimate purpose is marriage; datingmay lead to marriage, but main purpose is entertainment and amusement Compare and Contrast How are dating and courtship similar, and how are they different? Reading Check

22 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Click on the image to play the Interactive.

23 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

24 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Before industrialization –Marriages were dependent on a man inheriting agricultural land. –Families played an important role in determining spouses. Changes during industrialization –Young adults could earn money away from land, so parents became less involved in relationships. –The rise of free public education brought the sexes together. –After World War I, technologies such as the automobile and telephone gave young adults greater freedom. –The 1920s saw an increase in opportunity and equality for women. Goals of dating –Researchers find evidence that men and women choose those of equal status to date, as a function of homogamythe tendency of individuals to marry people with social characteristics similar to their own. The Emergence of Dating

25 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: Industrial Revolution, public education, telephone, cars, and equality of women Identify Cause and Effect What factors led to the emergence of dating in the United States? Reading Check

26 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Functions Entertainment Socialization Basic psychological needs such as conversation, companionship, and understanding Status attainment Spouse selection Dating serves several important functions in adolescence. These functions might occur at different stages of a relationship, and each may carry more or less weight at various stages. Functions of Dating

27 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: entertainment, socialization, conversation and companionship, status obtainment, spouse selection Summarize What are five important functions of dating? Reading Check

28 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Traditional Dating Patterns Responsibility for organizing a date falls to the man Behavior is highly ritualized Contemporary Dating Patterns Both sexes initiate and organize dates Relationships are based on friendship Amish Dating Patterns Begin courting around age 16 Opportunities occur at formal events Dating is done with marriage in mind Dating Patterns

29 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

30 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: become more informal and flexible, with greater gender equality Analyze How have dating patterns changed in the United States over time? Reading Check

31 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Challenges of Adolescence Adolescents in American society experience a number of social challenges related to sexual behavior, drugs, and suicide. Teenagers who engage in early sexual activity face serious health challenges, including pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Section 3 at a Glance

32 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Challenges of Adolescence Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, drug use, and drug-related violence are persistent and widespread problems among teenagers. Suicide is a major challenge facing American teenagers, and the suicide rates for teens now exceed the suicide rates for the general population. Section 3 at a Glance (cont.)

33 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus What are some of the main concerns about teenage sexual behavior? Why is teenage drug use such a problem in the United States? What social factors contribute to teenage suicide? Main Idea Adolescents face many difficult challenges, including issues related to sexual behavior, drugs, and suicide. Challenges of Adolescence

34 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. What are some of the difficult decisions that adolescents face in their lives?

35 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Traditional Sexual Values Some modern, preindustrial traditions encourage sexual experimentation as a preparation for marriage. Traditional American values from the Puritans and the Victorian age confine sexual activity to marriage. The Sexual Revolution During the 1960s and 1970s, the norms governing sexual behavior began to change. Birth control, youth counterculture, and the feminist movement encouraged changes. Various stages of romantic relationships are found on television and other mass media. Advertisers use the lure of sexuality to sell their products. Teenage Sexual Behavior

36 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The Rate of Teenage Sexual Activity In 1970, 29 percent of unmarried American females between the ages of 15 and 19 were sexually active. By 1995, the rate had jumped to 50 percent. Birthrate among American teenagers is considerably higher than that for other industrialized countries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages abstinence, or voluntarily not engaging in sexual behavior. Influences on Early Sexual Activity Factors include: family income level, parents marital status, religious participation In general, teenagers from higher- income two-parent families have lower rates of sexual activity than teenagers from low-income one- parent families. Teenagers whose friends engage in pre-marital sex are more likely to do so themselves.

37 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Consequences of Early Sexual Activity Teenage pregnancy has negative consequences Babies have lower birth weights and are more likely to die within the first year of life Low high school completion rates for teen parents Lower lifetime earnings Children more likely to experience learning disabilities Significant emotional stress Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) High rates of human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamydia, genital herpes Exposure to syphilis, gonorrhea, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Studies show teenagers are aware of the dangers of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, yet few teenagers think that they are personally at risk.

38 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: possible answersincrease in teen sexual activity, influenced by social and economic factors or by subcultural factors, about one million teen pregnancies each year with negative consequences, increase in STDs Find the Main Idea What are some basic facts about teenage sexual behavior? Reading Check

39 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

40 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. A drug is any substance that changes mood, behavior, or consciousness. Some are legal while others are illegal. There are social consequences to drug use. Drug-related crime increased during the 1980s and 1990s. Violence was often part of turf wars between rival gangs. Crack cocaine is the drug most associated with violent crime. Drug Violence Teenage Drug Use Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug among teens. About 70 percent of high school seniors have used alcohol. The United States has the highest rate of teen drug use. The Rate of Teenage Drug Use

41 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Teenage Attitudes Toward Drug Use Knowledge of danger of drugs has increased Disapproval rating of marijuana and cigarettes has increased Disapproval rating of LSD, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and barbiturates remain at 90 to 98 percent Influences on Teenage Drug Use Having friends who regularly engage in drug use Having social and academic adjustment problems Living in a hostile and rejecting family setting

42 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

43 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: Use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illegal drugs gradually declined after Sequence How has teenage drug use in the United States changed over time? Reading Check

44 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The rate of teenage suicide has more than doubled in the last three decades. Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people aged 5 to 24. Durkheim studied social aspects of suicide. Groups with especially high or especially low levels of social integration are more likely to commit suicide. The Sociological View of Suicide Teenage Suicide For some teenagers, the self- doubt and confusion of adolescence are blown out of proportion and solutions to problems are obscured. Social isolation and weakening social bonds can lead to suicide. Teenage Suicide

45 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

46 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Getting Help from Society Suicide is not the answer to a temporary problem. Learning to cope and manage pain and sadness is an important part of human development. Ask for help. Do not ignore the problem. Anyone who is suicidal needs professional help. Most cities have a variety of health organizations that offer services to people in need.

47 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: alcohol or drug use, triggering events, age, sex, population density, family relations, cluster effects (any three) Identify Supporting Details What are three factors that can contribute to teenage suicide? Reading Check

48 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Bullying Bullying is an intentional behavior that is meant to hurt and dominate another person. It includes verbal and physical abuse, as well as cyberbullyingusing electronic means to torment, threaten, harass, humiliate, embarrass, or otherwise target another. Sociology in Todays World Some Web sites have measures in place to prevent cyberbullying. Cyberbullying allows bullies to send harassing messages and pictures that can reach victims at home and at any time. Bullying leads to a decline in social standards of behavior. Many schools hold a Bully Awareness Week to help victims identify bullying. There are media campaigns to stop bullying. Parents and teens are becoming more aware of and reporting the problem.

49 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

50 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Thinking Critically How is bullying more than teasing? What else do you think school officials should do to prevent bullying?

51 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Creating a Drug Awareness Campaign What is the best way to educate adolescents about the dangers of drug use? In this lab you will create a drug awareness campaign. Work in groups to research a particular drug. 1. Introduction Lab: Applying What Youve Learned As a group, write a description of your assigned drug. Include the following information: name(s), method of taking, short and long term effects and dangers, statistical trends, and a chart. 2. Writing a Drug Profile

52 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

53 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

54 The Adolescent in Society Original Content Copyright © Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. 3. The Anti-Drug Poster Work with your group to design a poster that illustrates the danger of your assigned drug. Include a description or illustration that reveals the dangers of the drug. 4. Presenting Your Poster Give an overview of what your group has learned about your assigned drug. Present your poster to the class. 5. Discussion What did you learn from this lab? As a group, discuss the following: How successful was the class at creating posters? Which elements from each group were most effective? Which drugs present the greatest challenge to teens? What other media could be used to warn teens of the dangers of drugs?


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