2Adolescents are caught in 2 worlds: no longer children yet they are not adults in the eyes of society.It is the period between onset puberty and the beginning of adulthood.Puberty is the physical maturing that makes an individual capable of reproduction.
3It is not an universal phenomenon. It doesn’t exist in many societies It is not an universal phenomenon.It doesn’t exist in many societies. It is a creation of modern industrial societies.In some societies young jump from childhood to adulthood once they have taken part in formal coming- of- age ceremonies.These usually take place at the ages of 13 or 14 changing on certain societies. Some ceremonies show strength,endurance,filing teeth,tattooing or scarring of the teeth. Young people who complete those tasks are then considered adults.For them adolescence is unknown.
4Until the past century was adolescence acknowledged as a stage of development in the industrialized countries. These 3 factors have been important in the development of adolescence in a distinctive life stage: 1. Education : In the U.S. and othercountries it is mandatory to stay in school up to 16. There many stay and finish when they are 18.Then many go to college and graduate in their early 20’s. Education extends the period of adolescence because many students are dependent on others for their financial support.
52. Exclusion of youth from labor force 2.Exclusion of youth from labor force. In many places child labor laws stop youngnpeople from working until age 16.Most lack the training for a complete routine so they only work part-time jobs and continue studying.
63. Development of juvenile –justice system. By distinguishing adults and juvenile offenders society has created a separate legal status for young people. There are reformatories for youngs that have committed crimes.
7ASSIGNMENT p.p.p pts.Investigate coming of age ceremonies in different cultures. Show pictures.Groups of three
8ASSIGNMENTS1. Write a ten sentence paragraph about how has your life changed in the last 3 years. Relate this to :family relation,friends, pts.school,grades,tastes,hobbies.2. Write 2 paragraphs giving examples of peer pressure; a negative and a possitive ,that you have seen among your friends pts.
93.In couples,write 2 paragraphs explaining how the adolescence experience varies according to individual circumstances as:economic statusfamily structure pts.region of residence.
10RESEARCH-ppp pts.In groups of three investigate about teenage pregnancy; media, drugs,consequences.3 paragraphs.
11There are 5 characteristics that apply to the lives of all adolescents: 1.Biological and growth development: the brain and the endicrine system comtrol the biological development. PUBERTY is biological,it’s the period when people become able to produce children.Teens undergo growth spurts,voice changes and development of sexual characteristics.Anxiety or embarrassment is caused when certain teens don’t develop physically as faster as others of the same age.
12Undefined statusIt is often difficult for adolescents to determine their status.Some adults treat adolescents as children while others treat them as adults. Different people have different attitudes toward them.Some are youth oriented and have adopted some of the values,language and dress that are popular among adolescents.But others are often critical on the way they dress,music they listen and their behaviors.
13Increased decision making When children reach adolescence they must make decisions on their own like what highschool courses should they take ,what sports should they participate in,what clubs should they join,should they consider a college education.There seems no end to these decisions to be made.
14Increased pressureAdolescents have pressure from many sources. Parents have rules for them, with whom they can go out, places to go and time to come back . At the same time parents want their children to have an active social life. So there is a pressure between peer pressure and parental wishes.They also have pressure at school: classes to attend,homeworks,exams,grades,activities.Maybe the greatest pressure comes fromtheir peers.Most want to be accepted and bepart of the in groups.They want to go alongwith fashion and this creates a pressure
15Each year billions of dollars are spent in designing and marketing clothes,cosmetics,sport equipments, movies, and music for teenagers.In most cases the advertisement of these products attempt to create peer pressure .Adolescents also have pressure on establishing relations.Acceptance and popularity are main concerns.Some face job pressures ; to find a part-time job or summer job. Then there is pressure for having enough time for family ,job,studies,and social activities.
16The search for selfAdolescents are mature enough to think about themselves and know what they want about life.Most can sort through their values and know what things are really important for them.They can establish norms that will guide their behavior.They can set priorities for their lives .Such abilities are extremely important.When people know who they are, what they want out of life and which values will serve them best ,they are in a better possition to make the most out of adulthood.
17Can affect the life of an adolescent : Economic status,family compositionplace of residencerace,ethnicityreligionAll these can make a difference in the kind of adolescent experience a person has.
19Dating is a social behavior that is familiar to the majority of people but it isn’t a universal phenomenon.Dating or meeting of people as a romantic engagement is found in societies that allow individuals to choose their own marriage partner. In some societies marriages are arranged by parents who negotiates a marriage contract between families.Dating didn’t emerge as a formal interaction b/w sexes until after WWI .Only in the past 60 years have sociologists studied dating.
20Dating may eventually lead to marriage Dating may eventually lead to marriage.In its casual stages the main purpose is entertainment.It is the means through which most choose spouse in the modern society.Then the process is a continuum.The continuum starts with casual dating then going steady, later engagement and finally wedding.As individuals move in the continuum there is more commitment in the relation.
21Courtship The purpose is to get married. It was not casual and the roles were strictly defined.To court a women a young man had to meet the parents first and ask their permission. At the same time it was expected that the intentions were honorable.There was close supervision and rarely was the couple left alone.Young people had fun together but the main purpose was to find a spouse.
22Prior to the Industrial Revolution the U. S Prior to the Industrial Revolution the U.S. economy was based on agriculture.The time of marriage was when a man could support a family. So it depended on the fathers desire when to give land to the son so he could be independent and start a family. Because of this, parents controlled the choices of partners of their children.During Industrial Revolution people moved to the cities away from the farms and as result they became more independent from their parents.This economic freedom reduced parental control over courtship and developed dating.
23Factors that lead emergence of dating Industrial RevolutionCoeducational highschoolsTelephonesCarsAll these gave independence and equality to women.
24FUNCTIONS OF DATINGCasual Dating is a form of entertainment Psychological needs met by dating: conversation,companionship,understanding Dating is a means of socialization: Teaches individuals of members of the opposite sex and how to behave in social settings, defines self concept. Dating helps individuals attain status. In some societies dating a person who is valued by others can raise one’s own status. Spouse selection becomes a great issue.
25Dating patternsThere are traditional dating patterns and at the same time the informal patterns characteristics of dating today.Traditional dating patternsMen took the first step.Rules of conduct were well defined. Peer pressure to conform to certain behavior was strong and behavior that was not in line with group expectation was strongly dissaproved.In most cases there was an expected time for asking out. If later, then the person asked out was considered a second choice .Dating was so expected and tied to a social status that individuals that didn’t have one hid in their rooms in shame.They were centered in the couple.
26If a couple continued to date over time they went steady If a couple continued to date over time they went steady.This brought expectations and commitments.This was an anticipatory socialization for marriage.CONTEMPORARY DATING PATTERNSDating doesn’t have formal patterns.Men and women interact informally.Both sexes initiate dates.Anyone of them can pay for the date.Todays dating is based on frienship and the group more than in the couple.It is not necessary to make an effort on creating the best impression or selling themselves well.
27CHALLENGES IN ADOLESCENTS Teen agers try to figure who they are and who they want to be.They are confronted for the first time with important life decisions and their decisions can have serious consequences .They face situations that involve risky behaviors: sexual behavior,drug use and suicide.How they make difficult decisions shapes who they are and who they will become.
28SEXUAL BEHAVIORThe norms of sexual behavior vary widely from society to society.Some preindustrial societies permit sexual relations before marriage while others even encourage it.In the western countries there are strict norms against premarital sexuality.
29Sexual revolutionDuring the 1960’s and the 70’s the birth control pill was developed so as the emerge of the Feminist movement (liberation)Human sexuality became a topic openly discussed and explored. So then sexuality became a familiar feature of the American culture.
30MEDIA INFLUENCESMedia influences early sexual behavior.Teens exposed to sexual content are likely to have early sexual activity . Media: TV,music,movies and magazines.During the 1990’s programs were established with the objective of promoting ABSTINENCE among teen agers.Those unwilling to abstain were encouraged to use effective methods of birth control. These programs have been effective since teen pregnancy has decreased.
31FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE EARLY SEX. ACTIVITY Family income levelParents marital statusReligion participationHigh income level -2 parent family: lower rates of sexual activityLow income-one parent family: higher rate of sexual activity.Teenager participating in religion: less experienced sexually.Teen agers whose friends have premarital sex are more likely to be sexually active than those whose friends are not sexually active.
32Consequences of early Sex. Activity Babies born to teen age moms have lower birth weight and are more likely to die in their first year of life.Teenagers are less likely to finish highschool and college.Lower earnings because of lower educationChildren of teenage parents are more likely to have learning problems.These children have an increased risk of becoming teenage parents.