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Understanding Decontamination SOP’s

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Decontamination SOP’s"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Decontamination SOP’s
Cleaning + Disinfection = Decontamination

2 Overview Application techniques SOP’s Residue Disinfectants
Wipers Mops Fogs Residue Contact times Compliance Common Questions & Issues Summary SOP’s Compliance Order of Disinfection Typical SOP’s Disinfectants Types and properties Strengths & weaknesses

3 SOP Compliance Relies On Proper Use
SOP’s list specific Sanitizers, Disinfectants and Sterilants Each type of chemical is optimized for a different task All liquid disinfectants rely on intimate contact with the surface SOP compliance is very dependent on operators

4 General Order Of Disinfection
Disinfect ceilings and walls Clean the area (line clearance) Disinfect equipment (if applicable) Rinse or IPA wipe down of equipment Disinfect floors Allow to air dry Once a month clean and rinse all surfaces

5 Typical Cleaning SOP Multiple times/day: Sterile IPA on work surfaces and a disinfectant cleaner such as Vesphene or LpHse on the floors Weekly: Complete cleaning with germicide on ceilings, walls and floors Monthly or when action levels call for it: High level sterilants used for complete cleans

6 Bleach / H2O2 / Peracetic Acid
Hierarchy of Disinfectants Increased Microbial Efficacy and/or Regulatory Claims Ease of Use Bleach / H2O2 / Peracetic Acid (Spor-Klenz) Phenolics (LpH, Vesphene) Peroxide and Quats Process NPD, Biocide A & B Alcohols

7 Sanitizers vs. Disinfectants vs. Sterilants
Chemical Type Functionality Sanitizers(Sterile Alcohol) Disinfectant Cleaners (Low or Intermediate level Germicides) Sterilants (High Level Germicides) Offers 2 log reduction, no impact on spores and no residue. Offers 5 log reduction on a soiled surface with moderate residues. 5 log reduction and spore control on clean surfaces. High residues.

8 Summary & Comparison Of Liquid Disinfectants
Compiled by University of Virginia Class Recommended Use How They Work Advantages Disadvantages Comments & Hazards Examples 70% Isopropyl Alcohol solution -Cleaning some instruments -Cleaning skin -General purpose sanitizer for clean room equipment and work surfaces -Changes protein structure of microorganism -Presence of water assists with killing action -Very low in residue -filtered, sterile IPA very expensive High VOC’s and poor cleaning when sprayed on the surface -Not active when organic matter present -Not active against certain types of viruses -Evaporates quickly -Contact time not sufficient for killing -Flammable -Eye Irritant -Toxic - Sterihol Chlorine Compounds -Spills of human body fluids Bactericidal - Good Fungicidal - Good Sporicidal - Good at >1000ppm Sodium Hypochlorite -Free available chlorine combines with contents within microorganism, reaction byproducts cause its death -Need 500 to 5000 ppm -Produce chemical combination with cell substances -Depends upon release of hypochlorous acid -Kills hardy viruses (e.g. hepatitis) -Kills a wide range of organisms -Inexpensive -Penetrates well -Relatively quick microbial kill -May be used on food prep surfaces -Corrodes metals such as stainless, aluminum -Organics may reduce activity -Increase in alkalinity decreases bactericidal property -Unpleasant taste and odor -Tuberculocidal, with extended contact time -heavy residues -Follow spill procedure and dilution instructions -Make fresh solutions before use -Eye, skin and respiratory irritant -Corrosive -Toxic -Bleach solutions (sodium hypochlorite) -Clorox -Cyosan -Purex -NaDCC (sodium dichloro-isocyanurate)

9 Peroxide/ Peroxide & Peracetic Acid
Summary & Comparison Of Liquid Disinfectants…cont. Compiled by University of Virginia Class Recommended Use How They Work Advantages Disadvantages Comments & Hazards Examples Peroxide/ Peroxide & Peracetic Acid General Housekeeping Bactericidal - Very Good Fungicidal - Excellent Virucidal – Excellent Spores- good with extended contact times -30 minutes -disrupts cell walls -Kills broad range of organisms -Low residues -5 minute contact time for Broad Spectrum -Not affected by hard water Good safety and Environmental profile -Peroxide easily inactivated by organic residues -Peroxide/Peracetic acid limited penetration of residue laden surfaces -Pre-cleaning a requirement Peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide hard to use due to unstable solution -Klercide CR Biocide C -Spor-Klenz Phenolic Compounds Bactericidal - Excellent Fungicidal - Excellent Tuberculodial - Excellent Virucidal - Excellent @10 minute contact times -Gross protoplasmic poison -Disrupts cell walls -Precipitates cell proteins -Low concentrations inactivate essential enzyme systems -Nonspecific concerning bactericidal and fungicidal action -Vesphene/LpH formulated with cleaning surfactants -Unpleasant odor -Some areas have disposal restrictions -Effectiveness reduced by alkaline pH, natural soap or organic material -Sporicidal, no High residues -Skin and eye irritant -Sensitizer -Corrosive -Toxic -Hil-Phene -Lph -Metar -Vesphene Quaternary Ammonium compounds (QUATS) -Ordinary housekeeping (e.g. floors, furniture, walls) Bactericidal - Excellent Fungicidal - Good Virucidal - Good (not as effective as phenols) -Affects proteins and cell membrane of microorganism -Releases nitrogen and phosphorous from cells -Contains a detergent to help loosen soil -Rapid action, 5 minute contact times -Colorless, odorless -Non-toxic, less corrosive -Highly stable -May be used on food prep surfaces -spores not eliminated by all brands, TB bacteria, some viruses -Effectiveness influenced by hard water -Layer of soap interferes with action -high in residues -Select from EPA list of hospital disinfectants -Skin and eye irritant -Toxic -Biocide B has good spore activity w/15 minute contact times -Coverage End-Bac -Hi Tor -Klercide-CR Biocide A & B

10 Sanitizing Agents/Sterile Alcohol
Strengths Weaknesses Low Residue Signature Quick Drying Good Cleaning Performance if applied to wiper Hard to apply evenly in sufficient volume Very expensive (>when Sprayed to surface) High VOC’s (>when sprayed to surface) Poor removal of disinfectant residue

11 Sterile Alcohol/In Use Reality
SOP Objective SOP Compliance Issue Sanitize surfaces by removing residues and particles that harbor micro-organisms Rinse surfaces of disinfectant residues Current wipers make it difficult to wet the entire surface. Operator to operator non-uniformity To achieve even minimal contact times surfaces are sprayed, then wiped Bleach, Phenolic and Quat residues are not easily removed.

12 Low Level Germicides (Quats)/ Biocide A & B, Coverage Plus
Strengths Weaknesses Bactericidal and Fungicidal Some Virucidal activity Non Corrosive and non irritating 5-15 minute contact times Not Sporicidal and No TB Medium Level of residue Poor cleaning action against biofilms

13 Intermediate Level Germicides (Phenolics/Vesphene, LpH )
Strengths Weaknesses Broad level activity-Virucidal, Bactericidal, Fungicidal &Tuberculoid Maintains activity on soiled surfaces Good cleaning action on soiled surfaces No Spores High residue levels Minimum 10 minute contact time Operator Safety Issues

14 Intermediate Level Germicides(H2O2/Biocide C)
Strengths Weaknesses Fast acting Fungicidal, Virucidal & Bactericidal 15 minutes No residues Good safety profile Must be used on a clean, residue free surface No cleaning ability

15 Germicides/Disinfectant Cleaners-The Real World
SOP Compliance Issues SOP Objective Microbial reductions rely on achieving label indicated contact times times which are very difficult to achieve with mopping or wiping in high air flow rooms Rinse protocols are not easily met Mopping & Wiping are very operator dependent Achieve 5 log reduction on clean room surfaces Effective use depends on removing residue buildup

16 High Level Germicides Bleach/Spor-Klenz
Strengths Weaknesses Broad Level activity including Spores H202/Peracetic acid/ Spor-Klenz are fast acting (5 minute contact times for some organisms) Long contact times required for spores Bleach has high residue levels and is very corrosive Bleach is a poor cleaner and presents safety issues H2O2/Paracetic acid is concentration dependent so hard to use

17 High Level Germicides/Sterilants In use Reality
SOP Objectives SOP Compliance Issues Eliminate spore contamination Residue levels must be low Bleach, especially is dependent on long contact times Pre-cleaning and rinsing steps are hard to complete Often used more frequently than desirable

18 Applying Disinfectants Via Spray
Spray top to bottom Best wetting of the surface 7-10 minutes or longer Penetrates tight spots and rinses possibly existent contaminants Cleaning: power spray = not optimal Disinfection: light spray = excellent Spraying alone does not clean the surface and residues and particulate can build up Electrical issues need to be considered

19 Applying Disinfectants Via Mopping
Mop top to bottom with overlapping strokes Mopping is a mechanical action on the surface This loosens particulate and residues which removes some of the contaminates While loosening and removing some, it does not remove all Surface wetting is minimal and less than two minutes of contact time is typical

20 Applying Disinfectants Via Wipers
Wipe in one direction back to front towards person Cleaning a surface should be done with a damp wipe that soaks up a chemical agent Cleaning is not done with a saturated wipe as contaminants cannot be lifted from the surface Disinfection with a saturated wipe requires the wipe to be wetted and surface to be air dried Wipes need to be changed often

21 Applying Disinfectants Via Fogging
Many types of Foggers Fog: 12 x 15 room – two foggers for at least two hours Fogging for startup reduces the bioburden in the area Fogging is an excellent way to regain control of a corrupted area Fogging needs to be done at a droplet size of 25 um (1-2 hours) or gap between droplets can occur Fogging requires a release time (2-3 hours) and does not clean – should be followed with a cleaning Method for wet fog

22 Residues Can Be The Undefined Enemy
Some SOP’s specify residue levels on surfaces but some specify that the surface is clean Some residues do not show up on a white wiper Some SOP’s call residue removal rinsing

23 Contact Time=Wet Time Common misconception is that contact time is total time on the surface QC and Management do not understand that operators often do not cover the entire surface Actually, contact time is the time the surface is wet Operator technique variations can affect contact times

24 Typical Product Claims Sporicidal Agent
Sterilant/Sporicidal [B. subtilis (ATCC 19659), C. sporogenes (ATCC 3584)] Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Virucidal undiluted 5-1/2 hours 20oC Sporicidal – Non-porous Surfaces [B. subtilis (ATCC 19659), C. sporogenes (ATCC 3584)] undiluted 30 minutes 20oC Broad Spectrum Disinfectant [S. aureus (ATCC 6538). S. enterica (ATCC 10708)] undiluted 30 minutes 20oC Tuberculocidal (Mycobacterium bovis BCG) (Clinical Isolate) Mycoplasma gallispeticum (ATCC 15302) *HIV-1** (Clinical Isolate) *Minute virus of mice (Clinical Isolate) *Murine parainfluenza virus type 1 (Sendai) (ATCC VR-907) *Mouse hepatitis virus (Clinical Isolate)

25 Product Claims Cont. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) undiluted 5 minutes 20oC Germicidal Spray Disinfectant [S. aureus (ATCC 6538), S. enterica (ATCC 10708)] undiluted 5 minutes 20oC Non-food Contact Surface Sanitizer [S. aureus (ATCC 6538), K. pneumonicae (ATCC 4352)] dilute 50X (1 part to 49 part water) for 5 minutes 21oC

26 Decontamination Red Flags
Overuse of sporicides More frequently than validation indicated Visible cues - If the room doesn’t look clean, it probably isn’t Stained windows Stained tanks Sticky floors Frequency of passing alerts or action levels

27 Auditing Cleaning Practices Contact Times
How are you meeting disinfectant label contact time requirements? What are the contact times as specified by your SOP? Are your practices consistent with your SOP? Are contact times being logged?

28 Auditing Cleaning Practices Residues
How are you removing disinfectant residues from equipment? How are you improving your current practices to remove more residue? Are your cleanroom surfaces as clean as the coupons used to validate your disinfectants?

29 Typical Compliance Issues
SOP Issue Improved SOP’s Contact Times not being met or spraying required to meet contact times High disinfectant residues Very frequent sporicide rotations CoverMAX/PharmaMOP offer disinfection and cleaning in one step MiraWIPE and Microfiber mops Better cleaning and contact times may reduce the need to rotate in sporicides

30 Summary Having a robust decontamination SOP is critical
Improved disinfectant contact times are a major benefit High residue levels are typical and difficult to handle One step cleaning and disinfection is a significant improvement over current practices

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