Presentation on theme: "Biocontainment Practices Inside the Animal Lab"— Presentation transcript:
1Biocontainment Practices Inside the Animal Lab Guglielmo Vismara
2Topics Biological Risk Primary and Secondary Barriers Biosafety Cabinets and DeconLayouts
3Biocontainment Microorganisms, Animals manipulation, Allergens… Biological risk: risk associated to biological agentsMicroorganisms, Animals manipulation, Allergens…Invisible risk, it could be underestimatedIt must be assessed by experienced and responsible people (biosafety officer), for evaluation of the optimal working conditionsRisk = probability of accident x consequence of accidentThe risk is always present. It can be minimized but never eliminated at allPathogens associated with living animals increase the level of biological risk
4(Animal) Biological Safety Levels ABSL-1Defined organismsNot known to cause disease in healthy adultsBasicFacilityABSL-2Moderate-risk agents presentDisease of varying severityABSL-3Indigenous or exotic agents, aerosol transmissionSerious and potentially lethal infectionContainmentFacilityABSL-4Dangerous or exotic high risk agents,Aerosol transmissionSerious and potentially lethal infection
5The importance to know what pathogen is in use Micobacterium Tuberculosis: level 3 (CDC-NIH)Avian Influenzae H5N1: level 2/3 (CDC), level 3 (NIH)Human adherent cancer cells: generally level 2- Herpes, Papilloma, Citomegalovirus: level 2
6Risk Assesment and Management Evaluation of the riskMultiple FactorsManagment of the riskRisk assessmentRisk managementValidation and surveillanceCorrective actions
7Risk Assesment – examples of factors Evaluation of exposed personnel: who is exposed to animals, who enters the vivarium, who do the service, who clean the rooms.P.I. – Animal care takers – Technicians, …..Exposition to the biological agent: skin contact, eyes contact, inhalation, ingestion, inoculation.Splashes – Aerosols – Puntures – Animal bites and scratches,…Evaluation of the vivarium rooms layout and all the available equipment(barriers)
8Assesment/Management - examples Example: contaminated ferret urine spilled on the floorIs the microorganism in the urine?Can the urine be infective?What is the volume of contaminant?Choice of the absorbent materialWhat waste container to be usedWhat personal protective equipment to wearWhat tools to use to remove the wasteHow to decontaminate the floor surface
9Managing the Biological Risk To involve all the aspects in the lab activitiesEquipment choice, and best useOrganization of the room layoutsOrganization of logistic in the roomEvaluate the people and material flow in the vivariumWrite and “publish” the SOPsTrain of peopleAll this process is DYNAMIC and subjected to revisionsBiologicalAgentHostEnvironmentRisk
10Enclosure for the Biological Agents Primary barrier:first protective barrier from biohazard to the operatorsto protect people and environment close to the source of contaminationphysical shieldBiosafety cabinet, animal ventilated/sealed cage, tube, centrifuge…Every equipment must be associated with SOPs to be an effective barrier
11When working with an infected animal, it is the cage Primary barriersWhen working with an infected animal, it is the cage
12Features of a Good Primary Barrier Tight Sealed, no air leakageFiltration by HEPA filters – high efficiency, biological filtersAutoclavableCompatible with disinfectants and chemicalsCompatible with the size of a Biosafety CabinetVentilation controlled by pressureAir proof – Water proof
13Personal Protective Equipments - If animals are housed in open cages, PPEs are the primary barrier- In case of sealed primary enclosures, PPEs can be downgraded, anyway always represent an important protectionPPEs:GlovesCoats/GownsRespiratorsGogglesFace shieldsShoe covers
14Secondary barriers Depend on the transmission risk of agents used. The design, engineering and construction of the facility provides protection for the laboratory workers’ & provides a barrier to protect persons outside the laboratory.
15ABSL3 vivarium: what’s “HOT”??? HEPAAUTOCLAVECages on RackClassic Changing stationMICROISOLATORS?OPEN CAGES?IVCs’?
17BSL3 vivarium: what’s “HOT”??? HEPAAUTOCLAVEBiocontainment at cage levelLaminar Flow
18BSL3 vivarium: what’s “HOT”??? HEPAAUTOCLAVEContamination at enclosures levelPPEBut different risk assessment
19Some peculiarities of a Biocontainment Lab EquipmentChanging station = Biosafety Cabinet (Class II, Biohazard…)Animal cage = sealed containment cagePPE = very well defined, often respiratorsRoomsVery restricted access, locked doorsNegative pressure, constant monitoringDecontaminate all is taken outAnteroom, gradients of pressure, showersStrong Procedures
20Biosafety CabinetsVery important equipment for procedures/animal cage change/biological agents manipulationMandatory for BSL and ABSL > 1Certified equipment, requires training and ability to useLaminar Flow, protects product, people and environment under specific certifications
21Biosafety Cabinets Class II Cabinet – EN12469, NSF49 Frontal aperture, the operator can manipulate the product inside the cabinetFrontal air barrier to protect the operatorLaminar flow from the top to protect the productHEPA filtered exhausted air to protect the environmentPartial recirculation of air (60-70%)
22Decontamination Different words around this topic Sanitization: reduction of the microorganisms up to a level considered safe for public healthDisinfection: chemical or physical process to eliminate a biological agentSterilization: eliminates-inactivates all the biological agentsIn a Biocontainment lab/facility the decon equipmentis on the barrier
23Decontamination What is the microorganism (virus, bacteria, spore) Need effective decontaminationWhat is the media: surface/liquid waste/roomRight concentration and volumeIs the material resistant or not to the treatmentChemical or physical treatmentHuge choice of chemicals available on the marketDon’t be disoriented!
24Decontamination by gas Cold sterilization: useful for what cannot be treated by heat or liquidRooms: vaporization and ventilation, routine vivarium shutdownEquipment: bulky, not removable from the room, or sensitive (electrics)Performed in decon-locks: flexible systemPeroxide – Formaldehide – Clorine DioxideMUST KNOW:NOT EFFECTIVE BELOW THE SURFACE!
25Some BSL3 Layouts Similar to BSL-2 personal protective equipment Primary barriers:Similar to BSL-2 personal protective equipmentRespiratory equipment if risk of infection through inhalationSecondary barriers:Autoclave in the barrierCorridors separated from direct access to labAccess through self-closing double doors, lockedAir handling systems to ensure negative air flow (air flows into the lab)BSC II or BSC III