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Biological Hazards Routes of Entry

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Presentation on theme: "Biological Hazards Routes of Entry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Hazards Routes of Entry
Skin Absorption Inhalation Injection Ingestion

2 Aerosols Particles suspended in air
Bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi Respirable size invisible Produced by variety of lab activities Removable by HEPA filtration

3 Factors Determining IF Infection Occurs
The viability of the microbes The concentration of the particles in the aerosol The size of particles in the aerosol The persistence of the aerosol

4 Biological Hazards Causes of Infection
Needle puncture Other “sharps” (broken glass, blades, pipettes, etc.) Contact with infectious spills, sprays, aerosols Aspiration through pipette Animal bites or scratches Majority not traced to specific incident

5 Biohazards - Risk Groups
Group 1 - low individual and low community risk Group 2 - moderate individual and low community risk Group 3 - high individual and low community risk Group 4 - high individual and high community risk

6 Level 2 Physical Requirements
Away from public, offices, and patient care areas Biohazard sign at entrance Impervious surfaces Coathooks for lab coats near entrance Autoclave in or near lab Self-closing lab doors

7 Level 2 Operational Requirements
Class I or II biological safety cabinets Closed-cup centrifugation Containment of infected animals Emergency spill plan HEPA filtered vacuum lines Lab coats removed upon exiting Skin protection (gloves) Decontamination of glassware Service personnel clean floors only, lab personnel clean work surfaces

8 Decontamination Removing contamination by killing microbes, rendering items safe for disposal or use Principal methods Autoclave Chemical disinfectants Incineration

9 Autoclaves Efficiency depends on pressure, temperature, moisture contact, time Maintain and calibrate frequently Wash regularly with detergent Open containers to facilitate contact Verify effectiveness with indicators Follow safe operation procedures

10 Autoclave Hazards Heat/steam associated injuries glass breakage
chemical reactions if chemicals inadvertently placed inside explosive decomposition of items (tubes) made of cellulose nitrate biological hazard of contaminated material

11 Autoclave selection type of autoclave simplicity of use and design
rapid air removal for steam penetration and rapid steam exhaust prohibition of escape of microbes into environment ability to be monitored for temperature and pressure

12 Autoclave Parameters temperature 121oC pressure 15 gauge
time minutes displacement is dependent upon proper loading for adequate steam penetration

13 Indicators biological chemical

14 Chemical Disinfectants
Surfaces and equipment which cannot be autoclaved After spills of biohazardous material In discard jars and pipette jars

15 Choosing a Disinfectant
Types of organisms suspected or known contaminants Items/surfaces to be contaminated Toxicology of disinfectant Cost of disinfectant Corrosiveness of disinfectant Shelf life and required dilution Material which inactivates disinfectant

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