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Airflow and BSC Biosafety and Biosecurity Awareness Training

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Presentation on theme: "Airflow and BSC Biosafety and Biosecurity Awareness Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Airflow and BSC Biosafety and Biosecurity Awareness Training
For Afghan and Pakistani Bioscientists January 12-14, 2010 SAND No P Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 1

2 Biological Safety Cabinets (BSCs)
Primary means of containment Three design types Class I, Class II, and Class III Designed to provide protection for Personnel Directional flow of air into cabinet Environment HEPA filtered exhaust Product (except Class I) Laminar flow of HEPA filtered air But, how?

3 Primary Barriers – Ventilation Equipment
Personnel Product Environment Chemical Fume Hoods x Laminar Flow Clean Benches Class I Biological Safety Cabinet Class II Biological Safety Cabinet Class III Biological Safety Cabinet Isolators

4 How do HEPA Filters Work?
HEPA = High Efficiency Particulate Air Minimum efficiency of 99.97% removal of 0.3 micron particles HEPA filters do not filter out gases, vapors or volatile chemicals, they only filter out particulates (bacteria and viruses)

5 Class I Biosafety Cabinet
Provides personnel and environmental protection, but no product protection Typical applications include: Housing centrifuges, fermenters, cage dumping in an animal lab LABCONCO A. Front opening B. Sash C. Exhaust HEPA D. Exhaust plenum NUAIRE

6 Class II Biosafety Cabinet
Provides personnel, environmental, and product protection Type A2 Exhaust to room or outside through thimble connection 30% recirculated, 70% exhausted Type B2 Must be hard ducted to outside Total exhaust (100%) Pro: may be used with volatile chemicals Con: more expensive to operate, harder to balance airflows in lab

7 Class II, Types A2 and B2

8 Class III Biosafety Cabinet

9 Primary Barriers: Working in Biosafety Cabinets
Proper technique is critical to maintaining personnel and product protection! Elements Decontamination Setup Work flow Locations of supplies and waste containers Movement in and out Others Workflow from clean to contaminated (“dirty”)

10 Recognizing the Limitations of BSCs
Personnel protection depends on inward airflow through the work opening Requires proper techniques by user Only small quantities of volatile chemicals in any type of BSC Motors on standard BSCs are not sparkproof Should not use bunsen burners or alcohol lamps in BSCs Over time, heat can damage the HEPA filter Heat can create turbulent airflow, compromising protection And, potential for fire to destroy BSC Buildup of flammable vapors with 70% recirculation BSCs need to be tested and certified regularly to have assurance getting expected protection Prior to service After repairs or relocation Annually

11 Secondary Barriers Contain the agent within the room or facility in case an agent escapes from the primary barriers Building & Room Construction Separated from public areas Easily cleaned For containment laboratories: Room penetrations sealed Double-door entry HVAC Issues: Directional airflow Exhaust filtration Other Engineering Controls: Solid waste treatment Wastewater treatment Building Room BSC Tube

12 How do You Establish Directional Airflow?
Airflow Offset Control Relies on airflow through doors at all times “Leaky Box” concept Provides “Zone Control” of hazards and odors Lab Zone 1 Lab Zone 2 Lab Zone 3 Directional inward airflow provided such that air will always flow towards areas of higher containment Airflow

13 Airflow Offset Control
900 cfm Supply 1000 cfm Exhaust How much should the offset be? – IT DEPENDS! (USDA ARS 242.1: 15%, min 50 cfm cfm more appropriate) Modified by P.Jennette 100 cfm “Leaky” Level 3

14 Verifying Correct Airflow Before Entering Lab

15 Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Issues
Pressure monitoring devices at entry Smoke test HVAC controlled to prevent sustained positive pressurization Interlock exhaust/supply Alarms for HVAC failure (inside and outside the facility) Exhaust air HEPA filtered (sometimes necessary) Sealed ductwork Backflow prevention on supply air (Damper, HEPA) 1978 Smallpox lab infection in Porton Down England - Exhaust failure combined with poor practices led to the escape of virus from the BL4 lab (when the lab became + pressurized without an alarm and workers were discarding waste outside of the biosafety cabinet) -- the virus was carried out of the lab through a penetration around a pipe into a research darkroom on the floor above the containment laboratory.  The infected researcher died, her mother was infected and survived, and the PI took his own life after the autopsy proved his lab was responsible for the researcher's demise.

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