Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Essential Question Section 1:Section 1:Principles of Government Section 2:Section 2:The Formation of Governments Section 3:Section."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Essential Question Section 1:Section 1:Principles of Government Section 2:Section 2:The Formation of Governments Section 3:Section 3:Types of Government Section 4:Section 4:Economic Theories Chapter Summary
Essential Question What are the basic ways that governments are formed, and how do they serve the people who live under them?
Section 1 What Is the State? A state is a political community in a precise territory.state A state has sovereignty meaning that its government makes and enforces its own laws without approval from any other authority.sovereignty A nation refers to a sizable group of people united by common race, language, custom or religion.nation
Section 1 Countries in which the territories of both the state and nation coincide are referred to as nation-states. nation-states What Is the State? (cont.)
Section 1 Essential Features of a State The four essential features of a state include: –populationthe people –territoryestablished boundaries –sovereigntysupreme and absolute authority within its boundaries –governmentcentral institution United States Acquisitions
Section 1 States where people share a consensus, or agreement, about basic beliefs and values have the most stable governments.consensus Government is the institution through which a state:Government –maintains social order; –provides public services; and –enforces decisions that are binding on all its residents. Essential Features of a State (cont.)
Section 1 Origins of the State Scholars have constructed theories to explain the origins of state. Evolutionary Theory –The state evolved from the family. –The head of the primitive family served as government authority.
Force Theory Section 1 –The state was born of force, or the need to resist an enemy. –A state emerged when everyone in an area was brought under the authority of one person or group. Divine Right Theory –Certain people are chosen by a god or gods to rule. Origins of the State (cont.)
Section 1 –Divine right describes European monarchs in the 1600s and 1700s who proclaimed their right to rule came from God alone. Social Contract Theory –Thomas Hobbes promoted the idea of a social contract in which people surrendered their freedom to the state, but in return they received order and security. social contract Origins of the State (cont.)
Section 1 –John Locke believed that in a state of nature, men and women had certain natural rights including the rights to: life, liberty, and property. –Lockes social contract was made between the people and a government that promised to preserve these natural rights. Origins of the State (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 – DQ3 According to Thomas Hobbes social contract theory, what did the people receive in exchange for surrendering their freedom to the state? A.liberty B.security C.money D.property
Section 1 Purposes of Government There are four primary purposes of government. –Maintaining social order: Governments resolve conflicts to make civilized life possible. –Providing public services: Governments provide services that make community life possible.
Section 1 –Providing security and defense: Governments protect the people against attack by other states and other threats. –Providing for the economy: Governments pass laws that shape the economic environment. Purposes of Government (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 – DQ4 What might a democratic government do to influence the life of its population? A.provide tax advantages to specific industries B.maintain an even distribution of wealth C.provide secure employment D.develop a formal class system
Section 2 Government Systems There are two primary systems of government: –Unitary systemUnitary system Gives key powers to the central government. –Federal systemFederal system Divides key powers between national and state government.
Section 2 The United States began its federal system by forming a confederacy.confederacy –A confederacy is a loose union of independent states. Government Systems (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 – DQ1 In a unitary system of government all key powers belong to A.the state. B.local government. C.central government.
Section 2 Constitutions and Government A governments constitution is an incomplete guide that provides a statement of goals and a framework for governing that draws its authority from the people.constitution A constitutional government places limits on the powers of those who govern.constitutional government A preamble is a statement that sets forth the goals and purposes that the government will serve.preamble
We the people of the United states, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide fore the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Section 2 The main body of a constitution sets out the plan for government divided into articles and sections. Most written constitutions describe the procedure for amending, or changing, the constitution.amending Constitutional law is the field of law that studies questions on how to interpret the Constitution.Constitutional law Constitutions and Government (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 – DQ2 Most governments constitutions A.provide a comprehensive guide to all governing. B.reflect exactly how that constitution is enforced. C.communicate that governments intentions, purpose and goals. D.represent the final word of a government to prevent future modification.
Section 2 Politics and Government Politics refer to the struggle to control government and manage societal conflicts that could influence the lives of individuals.Politics People participate in politics to: –influence what benefits and services the government supplies and –turn their values and beliefs into public policy.
Politics can affect several key matters: Section 2 –Air and water quality –Economic conditions –Peace and war –Citizens rights and freedoms Politics and Government (cont.)
The Framers of the Constitution worried that special interest groups–people united by special political interests–would hinder the launch of their new government.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 – DQ3 What is the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government called? A.constitutional interpretations B.judicial restraint C.judicial activism D.politics
Section 2 Governing in a Complex World Inequalities among countries can be divided into two major groups: –Industrialized nations are nations with large industries and advanced technology to provide a comfortable way of life.Industrialized nations –Developing nations are nations that are only beginning to develop industry.Developing nations
Section 2 Global interdependence means that nations must interact or depend upon one another, especially economically and politically. –There are two factors that contribute to global interdependence: Growing industrialization Rapid technological advances Governing in a Complex World (cont.)
Section 2 International organizations have many different goals and operate beyond national boundaries. Governing in a Complex World (cont.)
–Organizations of states of the world The five types of international organizations are: Section 2 –Nongovernmental organizations Governing in a Complex World (cont.) –National liberation organizations –Terrorist organizations –Multinational corporations
A.A B.B C.C Section 2 – DQ4 Which best illustrates a catalyst for growing global interdependence? A.different values between nations B.widespread use of the internet C.abundant global resources
Section 3 Major Types of Government According to Aristotle the three major types of governments are: Autocracy:Autocracy –One person has all authority. –A monarchy is another form of government in which a king, queen or emperor inherits the throne and heads the state.monarchy Comparing Governments
Oligarchy:Oligarchy –A small group holds power. Section 3 –Oligarchs derive their power from wealth, social position, military power or a combination of these. Democracy:Democracy –The people govern either directly or through representatives. Major Types of Government (cont.)
Section 3 –An assembly of peoples representatives may be called a council, a legislature, a congress or a parliament. –In a republic voters elect representatives.republic Only a small percentage of people might be empowered to vote. Major Types of Government (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 – DQ1 In an oligarchy power is A.inherited by a monarch. B.held by representatives of the people. C.held by a single leader who rules by force. D.held by a small group who rules because of wealth or social power.
Section 3 Characteristics of Democracy A true democracy is defined by four characteristics: –Individual liberty All people are as free as possible to develop their talents. –Majority rule with minority rights Elected representatives enact laws that reflect the will of the majority of lawmakers.
Section 3 The rights of the minority are respected and protected. –Free elections Everyones vote carries the same weight. All candidates have the right to express their views freely. Citizens are free to help candidates or support issues. Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
Section 3 Legal requirements for voting are kept to a minimum. Citizens vote by secret ballot without coercion or fear of punishment. –Competing political parties. A political party is a group of individuals with broad common interests organized to win elections, conduct government and determine public policy.political party Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
Section 3 Rival parties make elections meaningful by giving voters a choice. Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C Section 3 – DQ2 Which of these characteristics indicate a democratic government? A.The number of political parties is limited by government. B.Minority rights are protected. C.Participation in elections is limited to the elite.
Section 3 Essential Elements for a Democracy A successful democracy depends on five essential elements: –Citizen Participation Citizens must be willing to participate in civic life. –Favorable Economy The economy must be prosperous and distribute wealth to many members of society.
Free enterprise is the freedom of private business to operate with minimal government regulation.Free enterprise Section 3 –Widespread Education A democracy is more likely to succeed in countries where most people are educated. Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.)
Section 3 Civil society is made up of a network of voluntary associationseconomic, political, charitable, religious, and many others that exist outside of government. Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.) –Strong Civil Society
–Social Consensus A social consensus refers to a country where most people accept democratic values and generally agree about the purpose and limits of government. Section 3 Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C Section 3 – DQ3 Free enterprise is the freedom of private business to operate A.with minimal government regulation. B.according to rigid laws enacted by the state. C.under the guidance of government regulation.
Section 4 The Role of Economic Systems Economics is the study of how limited resources are used to satisfy peoples seemingly unlimited wants.Economics All economic systems answer three questions: –What and how much should be produced? –How should goods and services be produced? –Who gets the goods and services that are produced?
Section 4 Economic systems of societies with more political freedom generally have less government regulation than societies with less political freedom. The Role of Economic Systems (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C Section 4 – DQ1 An economic system must answer which question? A.What products and services should be produced? B.What products and services are most valuable? C.How much should products and services cost?
Section 4 Capitalism Capitalism has five characteristics:Capitalism –Private ownership and control of property and economic resources. –Free enterprise Despite significant government regulation, the United States economic policies aim to preserve a free market.
Section 4 Buyers and sellers compete over resources to produce goods and services at the most reasonable price. –Freedom of choice –Possibility of profits Capitalism (cont.) –Competition
Capitalism employs a market system based on competition between buyers and sellers with an emphasis on freedom of choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers and business enterprises. Section 4 A free market places no limits on the freedom of buyers and sellers to make economic decisions.free market Capitalism (cont.)
Section 4 The idea of a laissez-faire economy was advanced by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations.laissez-faire –Laissez-faire is French for to let alone. –Smith said that the actions of buyers and sellers, not the government, should determine what is produced and bought. Capitalism (cont.) Mixed economies mix elements of capitalism and socialism.
A.A B.B C.C Section 4 – DQ2 Which statement is true of a laissez-faire economy? A.Government and markets have equal control. B.Government allows the market to determine what is produced and bought. C.Government promotes capitalism by eliminating free trade.
Section 4 Socialism Socialism is an economic system in which a government:Socialism –owns the basic means of production, –determines the use of the resources, –distributes the products and wages, and –provides social services such as education, health care, and welfare.
Section 4 Democratic Socialists are socialists who are committed to democracy in the political sphere but want better distribution of economic goods. Under this government, citizens have basic democratic rights like free speech and free elections but the government owns key industries and makes economic decisions. Socialism (cont.)
Section 4 Communism Communism is the economic system advanced by German philosopher Karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto.Communism –The proletariat: the industrial working class, concentrated in factoriesproletariat –The bourgeoisie: the middle class and owners of industrial capital such as factories and landbourgeoisie Marx defined three classes that emerged during the Industrial Revolution.
Section 4 Under communism, Marx predicted there would only be one classthe working class. Communism (cont.) –The capitalists: the ruling class with power over resources A command economy is one in which the government decides what to produce, how much to produce and how to distribute the goods and services that are produced.command economy
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4 – DQ3 In a government with a socialist economic system, the basic means of production are owned by A.the government. B.the market. C.the working class. D.the individual.
Chapter Summary start Purposes of Government Maintain social order Provide public services Provide national security Make economic decisions
Chapter Summary Government Systems Unitary SystemNational or central government holds all key powers Federal SystemPower is divided between the national government and state or provincial governments
Chapter Summary Characteristics of Democracy Individual liberty Majority rule with minority rights Free elections Competing political parties
Chapter Summary Economic Theories CapitalismEmphasis on freedom of choice and individual incentive SocialismGovernment owns means of production, decides how to use resources, and distributes wealth more equally among people CommunismNo recognized social classes; all property is held in common; government is unnecessary
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