2 Until the early 1900s, people often worked long hours for low wages Until the early 1900s, people often worked long hours for low wages. The labor movement began as people started to work together to improve their work conditions. Although there are many laws to protect workers, there are still concerns about working conditions, particular the use of immigrants and children.
3 Labor Movement in the U.S. Early Industrial Labor Source of early U.S. Factory Labor – Migration from Farm to CitiesNot accustomed to working for wagesWork orientedFairness concerns not an issueReceived what the land would provideUsed to working long hours with little or no time offUsed to working for themselvesA motivated, hard working labor pool!
4 Labor Movement in the U.S. Early Business Owners Businesses were family owned or independently ownedCapital investment improved productivity of workforceBusiness owners were profit motivated, and thereforeFocused on cost minimization, including cost of laborBusiness owners had support of government and legal systemIndustrial Issues not considered* work week * Wage equity* Safety * Benefits* Health Issues * Security (Job Protection)
5 BackgroundCurrently unions represent less than 15% of the total workforce and less than 10% of the private workforce.In the late 1800s-early 1900s unions’ actions were considered a violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act provisions against restraint of trade.Laws giving union members rights to collective bargaining were passed in the early 1900s but declared unconstitutional.It was not until the 1930s when union protections were created and affirmed by the courts.
7 Every year approximately 200 miners per mine died Every year approximately 200 miners per mine died. Here is an example of a cemetery where the industry that may have put them there in the background.
8 A group of miners pose for a picture……. 2000 feet underground A group of miners pose for a picture…… feet underground!!!!! That is almost ½ of a mile!
9 3 miners waiting to use the primitive elevator to lower them into the mining shaft for a days work!
11 Women and Children in the Workplace – What do you see?
12 How is Big Business treating its workers according to the picture?
13 Children stand on the machine while it is in motion!!!!
14 Here is a SIX year old girl working in a cotton mill
15 What occupational (job) hazards can you find in this picture? A candle would be placed into his hat to provide light while working in the mines!What occupational (job) hazards can you find in this picture?
16 The taller boy standing to the right oversees the breaker boys who separate the coal from the stones during mining. The machine used is moving quickly and they are not allowed to wear gloves! Why might this be dangerous?
23 A computer generated model of the conveyor line used to move products past workers so that they could do the same job over and over again.
24 Workers put spokes on the wheels of a future car.
25 Finished Product!- A car roles off of the end of an assembly line!
26 LABOR MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES TAKES PLACE!!! What actually happens?LABOR MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES TAKES PLACE!!!
27 History of Labor Unions: In the US the shoemakers were the first trade union in the 1700s.In the late 1800s unions that attempted to form and collectively bargain with employers were opposed by the government on the grounds that these actions were a restraint of trade outlawed in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.There were many violent disputes between union members and government agents.The first attempt at giving union members rights to collective bargaining were in 1914 with the Clayton Act.
29 Knights of Labor Terrence Powderly-leader Open to all workers regardless of gender, color or skillWorked for: 8 hour workdayEqual pay for equal workAbolition of child labor
30 Haymarket Square Chicago 1886 workers from McCormick Harvesting Machine Company struck for an 8 hour day (They wanted a reduction in the amount of hours they worked in a given day). However, the Knights of Labor (union) did not support their actions.police came - four strikers killed and several wounded.next day at a rally in Haymarket Square- anarchists spoke up against police & treatment of workers.Thousands protest the killings and during the rally the police break up the meeting - someone threw a bomb at police - 7 police die. In response the police spray the crowd with bullets and 10 more workers die with another 50 injured.Result: Anti-Labor feelings sweep the nation and membership in the Knights of Labor Union fell drastically!
31 Haymarket RiotHaymarket Square prior to the demonstration as protestors being to rally.Police respond to the protestors and a bomb goes off… The result-. In response the police spray the crowd with bullets and 10 more workers die with another 50 injured.
32 The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers
33 The American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded by Samuel Gompersmade up of skilled workers who had belonged to national trade unionsgain better working conditionshigher pay & shorter hoursfavored the use of strikes1900 AFL = leading union in the USWomen were excluded
34 THE GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 The great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 16, when railroad workers for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad staged a spontaneous strike after yet another wage cut. After President Rutherford Hayes sent federal troops to West Virginia to save the nation from “insurrection,” the strike spread across the nation. A picture of burned railroad cars during the mass strike
35 Pullman Strike:Owner George Pullman, who hoped to prevent labor discontent, but he was not willing to grant high wages. Pullman housed his workers in a company town. Instead of living in tenements like other industrial workers of the day, Pullman workers lived in attractive company-owned houses, with indoor plumbing, gas, and sewers.However, workers for Pullman lived in a "company town" where everything was owned by the corporation, including their housing and local store. The Pullman Company controlled every aspect of their lives, and practiced "debt slavery" Money owed was automatically deducted from workers' paychecks and frequently workers would never see their earnings at all. The workers children were responsible for the debt if the parents didn’t pay it off.National Guard fires on Pullman strikers, from Harper's Weekly (1894)
36 Pullman Strike continued: During the major economic downturn of the early 1890s, George Pullman cut wages without reducing the workers’ rent and other expenses. Discontented workers decided to stage a strike.The strike effectively shut down production in the Pullman factories and led to a lockout.The strike was eventually broken up by 12,000 U.S Army troopsPresident Grover Cleveland ordered the troops be sent in on the basis that the strike interfered with the delivery of U.S. Mail.Federal Judge in Chicago issued an injunction against the strikers ordering them to stop striking.By the end of the strike 13 strikers were killed and 57 were wounded. An estimated $80 million worth of property was damaged
37 Homestead Steel Strike: Workers went on strike for higher wages Homestead Steel Strike: Workers went on strike for higher wages. Management refused to negotiate and locked out the workers, however the workers broke in and took control of the mill. Management hired the Pinkerton Police, which is a private security force, to take control back. 300 Pinkertons arrived by barge and were greeted by the workers. For 12 hours a battle ensued. The end result was the Pinkertons surrendered.
38 Carnegie then requested help from the Pennsylvania National Guard to restore control over the strikers after the Pinkertons had failed. Carnegie replaced 1700 strikers with new workers called strike breakers (scabs).
39 International Workers of the World (“Wobblies”)
40 “Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism
41 Mother Jones: “The Miner’s Angel” Mary Harris.Organizer for the United Mine Workers.Founded the Social Democratic Party in 1898.One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905.
42 The Hand That Will Rule the World One Big Union
43 Labor Movement in the U.S. Organization Attempts Labor unions are a traditional American institutionAlthough trade union movement is over 200 years oldModern union era dates to the last quarter of the 19th centuryBusiness consolidation and emergence of larger corporations reduced individual labor bargaining powerPerceived abuses of business power led to attempts by labor to organizeFor the most part U.S. attitude was that labor unions were subversive until the 1940’s
44 Labor Movement in the U.S. Organization Attempts Early attempts at unionization were plagued with a lack of clear, universally accepted objectivesSome wanted broad social changeelimination of wage system universal 8 hour dayestablishment of producers cooperativesSome focused on betterment of job conditionswages working conditionswork hoursLack of leadershipThere was a public mistrust and fear of unionsPolitical Control Racketeering Communist TiesUnionization was not well accepted by a society where the ethic was to get ahead by individual merit
45 Labor Movement in the U.S. Organization Attempts Corporate business fought unions tooth and nailHad the power in terms of tradition and cultureHad a sympathetic legal system (government backing)Known union members were “blacklisted”Those suspected of union sympathy were firedCourt orders were obtained to prevent strikesBusinesses sometimes hired “private detectives” and utilized local police to put down strike attempts violently
46 Evaluation: (Giving your point of view on something and providing reasons why you think that way!) EQ: What was the role of labor unions in trying to solve the problems of workers during industrialization and give your point of view of the helpfulness of unions during industrialization in making changes for workers?