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Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals Chapter 20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals Chapter 20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals Chapter 20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 A mineral is a naturally occurring substance with a range of chemical compositions. An ore is a mineral deposit concentrated enough to allow economical recovery of a desired metal. Metallurgy is the science and technology of separating metals from their ores and of compounding alloys. An alloy is a solid solution either of two or more metals, or of a metal or metals with one or more nonmetals. Recovery of a metal from its ore: 1.Preparation of the ore 2.Production of the metal 3.Purification of the metal 20.1

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4 Metals and Their Best-Known Minerals 20.2

5 Production of Metals Roasting CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) 2PbS (s) + 3O 2 (g) 2PbO (s) + 2SO 2 (g) Chemical Reduction TiCl 4 (g) + 2Mg (l) Ti (s) + 2MgCl 2 (l) Cr 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al (s) 2Cr (l) + Al 2 O 3 (s) WO 3 (s) + 3H 2 (g) W (s) + 3H 2 O (g) Electrolytic Reduction 2MO (l) 2M (at cathode) + O 2 (at anode) 2MCl (l) 2M (at cathode) + Cl 2 (at anode) 20.2

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7 Blast Furnace for Producing Iron 20.2 (reduction process)

8 Steel Manufacturing via the Oxygen Process (oxidation process) 20.2

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10 Purification of Metals Distillation Ni (s) + 4CO (g) NiCO 4 (g) 70 0 C NiCO 4 (g) Ni (s) + 4CO (g) C Electrolysis Cu (s) (impure) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu (s) (pure) Zone refining 20.2

11 Zone Refining of Metals 20.2

12 In band theory of conductivity, delocalized electrons move freely through bands formed by overlapping molecular orbitals. Mg 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 or [Ne]3s 2 e-e- e-e- 20.3

13 Energy Gaps Between Valence and Conduction Bands in Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators e-e- e-e- 20.3

14 Semiconductors Si [Ne]3s 2 3p 2 n-type semiconductor donor impurities P [Ne]3s 2 3p 3 p-type semiconductor acceptor impurities B [Ne]3s 2 3p

15 Increasing Metallic Character 20.4

16 20.5

17 Alkali Metals (ns 1, n 2) M M e - 2M (s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2MOH (aq) + H 2(g) 2M (s) + O 2(g) M 2 O (s) Increasing reactivity 20.5

18 20.6

19 Alkaline Earth Metals (ns 2, n 2) M M e - Be (s) + 2H 2 O (l) No Reaction Increasing reactivity Mg (s) + H 2 O (g) MgO (s) + H 2(g) M (s) + 2H 2 O (l) M(OH) 2(aq) + H 2(g) M = Ca, Sr, or Ba 20.6

20 Aluminum Impure Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2OH - (aq) 2AlO 2 - (aq) + H 2 O (l) AlO 2 - (s) + H 3 O + (aq) Al(OH) 3 (s) 2Al(OH) 3 (s) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 3H 2 O (g) Anode: Cathode: 3[2O 2- O 2 (g) + 4e - ] 4[Al e - Al (l) ] 2Al 2 O 3 4Al (l) + 3O 2 (g) 20.7

21 Chemistry In Action: Recycling Aluminum


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