# Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Precipitation Reactions Precipitate – insoluble solid that separates from solution molecular equation ionic equation net ionic equation Pb 2+ + 2NO 3 - + 2Na + + 2I - PbI 2 (s) + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - Na + and NO 3 - are spectator ions PbI 2 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) precipitate Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 (s)

3 Precipitation of Lead Iodide PbI 2 Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 (s)

4 Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.

5 Examples of Insoluble Compounds CdS PbSNi(OH) 2 Al(OH) 3

6 Writing Net Ionic Equations 1.Write the balanced molecular equation. 2.Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes completely dissociated into cations and anions. 3.Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equation 4.Check that charges and number of atoms are balanced in the net ionic equation AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) Ag + + NO 3 - + Na + + Cl - AgCl (s) + Na + + NO 3 - Ag + + Cl - AgCl (s) Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate with sodium chloride.

7 Chemistry In Action: CO 2 (aq) CO 2 (g) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2HCO 3 (aq) CaCO 3 (s) + CO 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) - An Undesirable Precipitation Reaction

8 Properties of Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas Cause color changes in plant dyes. 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) 2HCl (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.

9 Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Properties of Bases Cause color changes in plant dyes. Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity. Examples:

10 Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water

11 Hydronium ion, hydrated proton, H 3 O +

12 A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor acidbaseacidbase A Brønsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton!

13 Monoprotic acids HCl H + + Cl - HNO 3 H + + NO 3 - CH 3 COOH H + + CH 3 COO - Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Diprotic acids H 2 SO 4 H + + HSO 4 - HSO 4 - H + + SO 4 2- Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Triprotic acids H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - H 2 PO 4 - H + + HPO 4 2- HPO 4 2- H + + PO 4 3- Weak electrolyte, weak acid

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15 Identify each of the following species as a Brønsted acid, base, or both. (a) HI, (b) CH 3 COO -, (c) H 2 PO 4 - HI (aq) H + (aq) + I - (aq)Brønsted acid CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) CH 3 COOH (aq)Brønsted base H 2 PO 4 - (aq) H + (aq) + HPO 4 2- (aq) H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + H + (aq) H 3 PO 4 (aq) Brønsted acid Brønsted base

16 Neutralization Reaction acid + base salt + water HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O H + + Cl - + Na + + OH - Na + + Cl - + H 2 O H + + OH - H 2 O

17 Neutralization Reaction Involving a Weak Electrolyte weak acid + base salt + water HCN (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCN (aq) + H 2 O HCN + Na + + OH - Na + + CN - + H 2 O HCN + OH - CN - + H 2 O

18 Neutralization Reaction Producing a Gas acid + base salt + water + CO 2 2HCl (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H 2 O +CO 2 2H + + 2Cl - + 2Na + + CO 3 2- 2Na + + 2Cl - + H 2 O + CO 2 2H + + CO 3 2- H 2 O + CO 2

19 Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete. Equivalence point – the point at which the reaction is complete Indicator – substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point Slowly add base to unknown acid UNTIL the indicator changes color

20 Titrations can be used in the analysis of Acid-base reactions Redox reactions H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 5Fe 2+ + MnO 4 - + 8H + Mn 2+ + 5Fe 3+ + 4H 2 O

21 What volume of a 1.420 M NaOH solution is required to titrate 25.00 mL of a 4.50 M H 2 SO 4 solution? WRITE THE CHEMICAL EQUATION! volume acidmoles acidmoles basevolume base H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 4.50 mol H 2 SO 4 1000 mL soln x 2 mol NaOH 1 mol H 2 SO 4 x 1000 ml soln 1.420 mol NaOH x 25.00 mL = 158 mL M acid rxn coef. M base

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