2Energy & electricityElectricity is the flow of electrical power or charge.It is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources.The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable,but electricity itself is neither renewable or non-renewable.
3Renewable energy resources Solar energyHEPTidal powerWind powerGeothermal energyWater motionBiofuels
4Non-renewable energy Firewood/charcoal Coal Oil/petroleum Natural gas Nuclear power
14Where is the industry located? By the sides of a river/streamExample: Textile industry in Somerset, Britain in 14th century
15Coal Strong locational influence Highly localized Therefore, industries are coal field-orientedExample: early steel industries in Pittsburgh, USA
16ElectricityMobile = can be transported by cables and pylons (>1500 km from power station)ubiquitousTherefore, free from the sources of powerReduce the pull of energy
17ElectricityAllows some old industries in the coalfield continue to operate (geographical inertia)
18Coal Allows other factors to influence the location of industries Like marketSo industries can now be located away from power resources and power stations
19Coal Some stick to coastal location (port-oriented) Due to import of power resources, e.g. coalExample: iron and steel ind. have been located along NE USA to obtain imported RM at lower cost
20Petroleum & natural gas Small impact on industrial locationCan be easily transported by pipelines, e.g. AlaskaAnd by supertankersBut port locations are attractive ind. locations
21HEPAssociated with aluminium smelting & pulp ind., which requires a lot of energyPull on ind. location is not strongAs it can be conveniently transmitted by high-tension wiresAllow other factors to become more important, e.g. labour supply and market
22Nuclear power Produced by nuclear reactors Located in remote areas Because of radiation dangerunlikely to attract ind.
23Aluminium smelting energy-intensive/power-oriented Aluminium smelters at Kitimat in British ColumbiaElectro-chemical industries around Niagara Falls, S. Norway.It requires on average 15.7 kWh of electricity to produce 1 kg of aluminium.The smelting process is continuous/ cannot easily be stopped and restarted.Therefore, reliable power supply is essential
24Aluminium smeltingDesign and process improvements have progressively reduced this figure from about 21kWh in the 1950's.
25Aluminium & HEP> 55% of the world's primary aluminium is produced using HEPHEP dams and their related aluminium smelters tend to be situated in remote areas.Most other aluminium smelters are located in energy-surplus regions.
26Recent trend: Global shift in aluminium smelters From MDCs to LDCs such as Latin America.e.g. build Al. smelters in Trinidad & TobagoReasons:Rising energy costs in developed worldLow energy cost (local gas)RM are found (bauxite)Access to N. American markets
27Is power still an important location factor now? Important for those ind. which consume a large amount of energyFor other ind., regularity and consistency supply of electricity is more importantOften occur in many newly industrialized countries with the lack of infrastructureExample: Daya Bay