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1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: The Renaissance Section 2: Ideas and Art of the Renaissance
Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Renaissance Section 2: Ideas and Art of the Renaissance Section 3: The Protestant Reformation Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 How was architecture influenced by the Renaissance?
Tremendous advances in architecture took place during the Italian Renaissance. Among the great masterpieces was the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica shown in the photo. Architect Donato Bramante began this project for Pope Julius II; however, Michelangelo completed the design of this structure. In this chapter you will learn about social, political, economic, and cultural effects of the Renaissance. • What are some other accomplishments for which Michelangelo is famous? • Compare and contrast the design of the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica to that of more modern domes such as the U.S. Capitol. Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Intro

5 Chapter Intro

6 The Renaissance Why did the Renaissance begin in the Italian city-states? Chapter Intro 1

7 Ideas and Art of the Renaissance
What characterizes Renaissance art, such as Michelangelo’s David or da Vinci’s Mona Lisa? Chapter Intro 2

8 The Protestant Reformation
What conditions encourage the growth of revolutions? Chapter Intro 3

9 The Spread of Protestantism
What led to the formation of different Protestant churches? Chapter Intro 4

10 Chapter Preview-End

11 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Between 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement. How does a society emerge from political, social and/or economic “dark ages”? Section 1-Main Idea

12 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary urban society secular
mercenaries dowry Academic Vocabulary instability decline Section 1-Key Terms

13 People, Places, and Events
Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Milan Venice Florence Francesco Sforza Cosimo de´ Medici Lorenzo de´ Medici Rome Niccolò Machiavelli Section 1-Key Terms

14 The Italian Renaissance
As the Renaissance began, three Italian city-states were the centers of Italian political, economic, and social life. Section 1

15 The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
The Italian Renaissance lasted from 1350 to It was a time period in which Europeans believed they had witnessed a rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. Characteristics of the Renaissance: The Renaissance was mainly led by an urban society, and Italian city-states came to dominate political, social, and economic life. The Renaissance witnessed the rise of a secular viewpoint of wealth and material items. Section 1

16 The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
The Renaissance occurred during a time of recovery from the disasters of the fourteenth century: the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. The Renaissance also stressed the individual ability of human beings. Well-rounded individuals, such as Leonardo da Vinci, emphasized the belief that individuals could create a new social ideal. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

17 The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
With the lack of centralized power, Italian city-states such as Milan, Venice, and Florence played a crucial role in Italian economics and politics. Milan’s location as a crossroads between the coastal Italian cities and the Alpine passes made it a very wealthy state. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

18 The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
In 1434, Cosimo de’ Medici and his family came to control Florence using their wealth and personal influence. Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici later ruled the city. Powerful monarchial states in Europe were attracted to the wealth of the Italian city-states, and in 1494 Charles VIII of France occupied Naples in southern Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

19 The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
The Spanish replied to the Italian cries of assistance and engaged the French in a 30-year war on the Apennine Peninsula. The turning point of the war came in 1527 when soldiers and mercenaries of Spain’s King Charles I, who had not been paid in months, sacked Rome. Spain became the dominant force in Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

20 Machiavelli on Power Machiavelli’s The Prince has profoundly influenced political leaders. Section 1

21 Machiavelli on Power (cont.)
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote a book that influenced political thought in Italy and eventually all of Europe. In his influential work, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote about how to acquire and hold political power. He stated that a ruler must put the state first and not focus on moral principles. Machiavelli’s rejection of popular Christian values would have a profound influence on the political leaders who followed. Section 1


23 Renaissance Society Changes in the social classes occurred during the Renaissance. Section 1

24 Renaissance Society (cont.)
Despite being the minority, nobles dominated sixteenth-century Europe during the Renaissance. Nobles were expected to live up to certain ideals of European aristocracy. These ideals were expressed in Baldasarre Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier. Peasants continued to make up the bulk of European society but were gaining more independence during the Renaissance. Section 1

25 Renaissance Society (cont.)
The growing numbers of townspeople were segregated into social groups. Patricians dominated the social and economic aspect of urban areas. Below them were the burghers, followed by the poverty-stricken workers and the unemployed. Section 1

26 Renaissance Society (cont.)
The family bond provided a great deal of security to Renaissance-era Italians. As in many societies, a dowry was required in marriage contracts. Arranged marriages Father in charge – finances, decisions Mother supervise household and children Children considered adult only when fathers went before judge to free them Section 1

27 Section 1-End

28 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Humanism was an important intellectual movement of the Renaissance and was reflected in the works of Renaissance artists. Section 2-Main Idea

29 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary humanism vernacular fresco
attain style Section 2-Key Terms

30 People, Places, and Events
Petrarch Dante Chaucer Canterbury Christine de Pizan Raphael Michelangelo Flanders Jan van Eyck Albrecht Dürer Section 2-Key Terms

31 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you think it is important to learn another language? A. Yes B. No A B Section 2-Polling Question

32 Italian Renaissance Humanism
Humanism, based on study of the classics, revived an interest in ancient Latin; but many authors wrote great works in the vernacular. Section 2

33 Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
A key intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism. Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. Petrarch believed that intellectuals had a duty to live an active civic life and put their study of the humanities to the state’s service. The humanist emphasis on classical Latin led to an increase in the writings of scholars, lawyers, and theologians. Section 2

34 Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
The Italian author Dante and the English author Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in vernacular, making vernacular literature very popular. Dante’s masterpiece was the story of the soul’s journey to salvation, called the Divine Comedy. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales used English dialect to tell the tale of pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, England. Section 2

35 Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
Christine de Pizan wrote in French dialect defending women and their ability to learn if given the same educational opportunities as men. Section 2

36 Renaissance Education
Education during the Renaissance focused on the liberal studies. Section 2

37 Renaissance Education (cont.)
The humanist movement led to changes in education. Humanists believed that individuals could attain wisdom and virtue by studying liberal studies. Physical education was also emphasized. Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence, letters, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music. Section 2

38 Renaissance Education (cont.)
Physical education: javelin throwing, archery, dancing, wrestling, hunting, and swimming. The goal of humanist educators was to create complete citizens, not great scholars. Humanist schools were the model for European education until the twentieth century. Section 2

39 Italian Renaissance Art
The Renaissance produced great artists and sculptors such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci. Section 2

40 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature through a human-focused worldview. Frescos created the illusion of three dimensions, leading to a new realistic style of painting. Realistic portrayal of the individual, especially nude depictions, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art. Section 2

41 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Advances in understanding human movement and anatomy led to advances in Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The final era of Italian Renaissance painting (1490 to 1520) is known as the High Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic painting and sought to advance to idealized forms of nature and humans. Section 2

42 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Raphael was a well known artist for his paintings of the madonna. His works reveal a world of balance, harmony, and order. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, and architect. His depictions of idealized humans are meant as a reflection of divine beauty. Section 2

43 How did Renaissance painters and sculptors portray humans?
A. As masters of nature B. With religious overtones C. Realistic and human centered D. Powerful and strong A B C D Section 2

44 The Northern Artistic Renaissance
Northern European artists, especially those in the Low Countries, portrayed their world realistically but in a different way than did the Italian artists. Section 2

45 The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)
Artists in the Low Countries (today’s Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) also sought to portray their world realistically. As opposed to Italian artists who perfected their work on the large, open spaces of Italian churches, Northern European artists painted on much smaller canvases. One of the most important art schools in northern Europe was in Flanders, one of the Low Countries. Section 2

46 The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)
Artists such as Jan van Eyck were among the first to use and perfect oil painting. Artists from northern Europe, such as German Albrecht Dürer, traveled to Italy to study the Italian standards and laws of perspective. Section 2

47 What was the significance of Jan van Eyck’s use of oil paint?
A. Oil was cheaper to use. B. Oil paints were available to everyone, not just Italians. C. Oil allowed for the use of more color. D. Oil allowed artists to paint anywhere. A B C D Section 2

48 Section 2-End

49 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values In northern Europe, Christian humanists sought to reform the Catholic Church, and Protestantism emerged. Section 3-Main Idea

50 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary Christian humanism salvation
indulgence Lutheranism Academic Vocabulary precise ignorant Section 3-Key Terms

51 People, Places, and Events
Martin Luther Desiderius Erasmus Wittenberg Ninety-five Theses Edict of Worms Charles V Bohemia Hungary Peace of Augsburg Section 3-Key Terms

52 Section 3-Polling Question
Reform is always good and allows civilization to advance. A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 3-Polling Question

53 Prelude to Reformation
Christian humanism and Desiderius Erasmus paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. Section 3

54 Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
During the second half of the fifteenth century, adherents of Christian humanism sought to reform the Catholic Church. Christian humanists believed that humans could improve themselves and thus improve society. Europe After the Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Section 3

55 Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
Desiderius Erasmus thought that external forms of medieval religion such as pilgrimages, fasts, and relics were unnecessary and that inner piety derived from religious philosophy was more important. Section 3

56 Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church: Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics and material goods than spiritual guidance. Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties. Section 3

57 Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
An automatic means of obtaining salvation, such as the collection of relics, was being presented to the people. The use of indulgences was used to avoid punishment for sin. Section 3

58 What was the main thesis of Erasmus’s The Praise of Folly?
A. Certain aspects of society needed reform. B. The Catholic Church did not need a pope. C. Monks and nuns should be the true leaders of the Church. D. The Church needed to update its traditions. A B C D Section 3

59 Martin Luther Believing in his new doctrine of salvation, Martin Luther broke from the Catholic Church and established Lutheranism. Section 3

60 Martin Luther (cont.) Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. He believed that humans would be saved by their faith in God and not by the good works done in His name. Section 3

61 Martin Luther (cont.) Luther did not want to break away from the Church, only to reform it. He wrote a list of his grievances, known as the Ninety-five Theses, and copies were sent all over Germany. In 1521, Luther was excommunicated for attempting to get German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German church. Section 3

62 Martin Luther (cont.) The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw, and his works were banned. Many German princes who supported Luther confiscated Church land, and a government church was established. A new religious service which consisted of reading the Bible, preaching the word of God, and songs, became the basis of the doctrine known as Lutheranism. Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith. Section 3

63 How did Luther outline his grievances with the Catholic Church?
A. Edict of Worms B. Wittenburg Policy C. Ninety-five Theses D. indulgences A B C D Section 3

64 Politics in the German Reformation
Political and religious problems forced the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to seek peace with the Lutheran princes. Section 3

65 Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)
The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by Charles V who wanted the empire to remain Catholic. The empire included Spain, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, and Naples. Problems with the Ottoman Turks, French rivalry, and the alliance of the German kingdoms prevented Charles from asserting military power over the Protestant Reformation in Germany. Section 3

66 Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)
In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars by accepting the division of Christianity. German rulers, but not the German people, could choose their own religion. Section 3

67 Why did the German princes support Luther?
A. To assert their own authority over local affairs B. To force Charles V to give them independence C. To gain the support of the German people D. To overthrow the pope A B C D Section 3

68 Section 3-End

69 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Different forms of Protestantism emerged in Europe as the Reformation spread, and the Catholic Church underwent a religious rebirth. Section 4-Main Idea

70 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary predestination annul published
justification Section 4-Key Terms

71 People and Places Ulrich Zwingli Zürich John Calvin Geneva
King Henry VIII Ignatius of Loyola Trent Section 4-Key Terms

72 Section 4-Polling Question
Leaders should be able to adapt religions as they deem necessary for the good of the people. A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 4-Polling Question

73 Divisions in Protestantism
By the mid-sixteenth century, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important and dynamic form of Protestantism. Section 4

74 Divisions in Protestantism (cont.)
In Zürich, Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli was influential in reforming the Catholic Church. His Protestant movement spread through Switzerland. John Calvin was a Frenchman whose conversion to Protestantism forced him to flee to Switzerland. Calvin believed in an all-powerful God and the idea of predestination. European Religions, 1600 Section 4

75 Divisions in Protestantism (cont.)
Calvin’s ideas led to the rise of Calvinism which soon became more popular than Lutheranism. Calvin worked to reform the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva soon became the center of Protestant reform in Europe, and its missionaries were sent all over to convert the local populations. Section 4

76 How did Ulrich Zwingli lose control of the Protestant movement?
A. He was too conservative. B. He demanded Protestants give their land to religious authorities. C. He was killed in battle against the Catholics. D. He was imprisoned for heresy. A B C D Section 4

77 Reformation in England
For political, not religious, reasons, Henry VIII established the Church of England. Section 4

78 Reformation in England (cont.)
King Henry VIII of England established the Church of England when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the king of England the official head of religious doctrine, with control over discipline, clerical appointments, and breaking ties with the pope. Henry’s Church of England was very similar to Catholicism, although after his death English officials attempted to make it more “Protestant”. Section 4

79 Reformation in England (cont.)
In 1553, Henry’s daughter, Mary, came to power and attempted to restore Roman Catholicism. Her efforts, including the burning of more than 300 Protestants, earned her the nickname of “Bloody Mary.” Section 4

80 What were the results of Queen Mary’s attempts to restore England to Catholicism?
A. The people supported her decisions. B. It made people more pro-Protestant. C. Mary was killed by Protestants. D. The pope supported Mary by sending an army to England. A B C D Section 4

81 Anabaptists For believing in the complete separation of church and state, Anabaptists were viewed as dangerous radicals. Section 4

82 Anabaptists (cont.) Anabaptists were Protestant reformers who did not want to give power to the state. Anabaptists believed: Religion should be voluntary; baptism occurred as an adult. All believers were equal; any member could become a minister. Separation of state and church; refused to bear arms or serve in military positions Section 4

83 Anabaptists (cont.) The religious and political beliefs of the Anabaptists seemed radical, and they were persecuted by Catholics and Protestants. Section 4

84 A B C D To the Anabaptists, who was eligible to become a minister?
A. Any male Christian B. Any landowner C. Spiritual leaders of all religions D. All educated males who paid the church A B C D Section 4

85 Reformation and Society
Although the family became the center of life during the Reformation, the lives of most women and Jews did not improve. Section 4

86 Reformation and Society (cont.)
With the rise of Protestantism came the end of celibacy for Church leaders. Women were subservient, and their roles were obedience to their husband and to bear children. Protestants expected Jews to convert to Lutheranism. When they refused, Protestants such as Martin Luther wrote that Jewish synagogues and homes should be destroyed. Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Beliefs Section 4

87 In reality, how much did women’s roles change with the rise of Protestantism?
A. Women could now be ministers. B. Women were given political power. C. Women’s subservient roles did not change much. D. Women were equal to their husbands. A B C D Section 4

88 Catholic Reformation Perceiving a need for a change, Pope Paul III steered the Catholic Church toward a reformation in the 1500s. Section 4

89 Catholic Reformation (cont.)
The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation was a Catholic Reformation. A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits, a group who swore allegiance to the pope. Jesuit missionaries were influential in spreading Catholicism in Germany and the rest of the world. Section 4

90 Catholic Reformation (cont.)
Pope Paul II led a reformation of the papacy, ending corruption either real or perceived. The pope, archbishops, bishops, and other theologians met irregularly at the Council of Trent to discuss Church matters and establish Catholic doctrine. Section 4

91 How were Jesuits most successful in educating people about Catholicism?
A. Through use of soldiers B. Through use of missionaries C. Through church officials D. By providing money for the Church A B C D Section 4

92 Section 4-End

93 THE RENAISSANCE in Italy and Northern Europe
Milan, Venice, and Florence became centers of Renaissance learning and culture. Machiavelli’s views on gaining and holding power influenced political leaders. Humanist education focused on liberal studies. Artists sought to portray the world realistically. VS 1

Erasmus and other Christian humanists paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. Catholic teaching stressed faith and good works, but Luther believed that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. The Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars and allowed German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. VS 2

Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism. Henry VIII established the Church of England for political rather than religious reasons. Anabaptists believed in the total separation of church and state. Pope Paul III took steps to reform the Catholic Church. VS 3

96 VS-End

97 Figure 1

98 Figure 2

99 Figure 3

100 Figure 4

101 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

102 Chapter Trans

103 Unit Timeline Trans

104 CnETrans

105 DFS Trans 1

106 DFS Trans 2

107 DFS Trans 3

108 DFS Trans 4

109 urban society a system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life Vocab1

110 secular worldly Vocab2

111 mercenary a soldier who sells his services to the highest bidder

112 dowry a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride’s parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife Vocab4

113 instability not steady; wavering Vocab5

114 decline a change to a lower state or level Vocab6

115 humanism an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history Vocab7

116 vernacular the language of everyday speech in a particular region

117 fresco a painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints

118 attain to gain or achieve Vocab10

119 style having a distinctive quality or form Vocab11

120 Christian humanism a movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance, combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church Vocab12

121 salvation the state of being saved (that is, going to heaven) through faith alone or through faith and good works Vocab13

122 indulgence a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death Vocab14

123 Lutheranism the religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith Vocab15

124 precise exact or sharply defined Vocab16

125 ignorant unaware; lacking knowledge of Vocab17

126 predestination the belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved (the elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate) Vocab18

127 annul declare invalid Vocab19

128 published printed for distribution Vocab20

129 justification the process of being justified, or deemed worthy of salvation, by God Vocab21

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