Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The Renaissance Section 2:Section 2:Ideas and Art of the Renaissance Section 3:Section."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The Renaissance Section 2:Section 2:Ideas and Art of the Renaissance Section 3:Section 3:The Protestant Reformation Section 4:Section 4:The Spread of Protestantism Visual Summary
Chapter Intro 1 The Renaissance Why did the Renaissance begin in the Italian city- states?
Chapter Intro 2 Ideas and Art of the Renaissance What characterizes Renaissance art, such as Michelangelo’s David or da Vinci’s Mona Lisa?
Chapter Intro 3 The Protestant Reformation What conditions encourage the growth of revolutions?
Chapter Intro 4 The Spread of Protestantism What led to the formation of different Protestant churches?
Section 1-Key Terms People, Places, and Events Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Milan Venice Florence Francesco Sforza Cosimo de´ Medici Lorenzo de´ Medici Rome Niccolò Machiavelli
Section 1 The Italian Renaissance As the Renaissance began, three Italian city-states were the centers of Italian political, economic, and social life.
Section 1 The Italian Renaissance lasted from 1350 to 1550. It was a time period in which Europeans believed they had witnessed a rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. Characteristics of the Renaissance: The Italian Renaissance (cont.) –The Renaissance was mainly led by an urban society, and Italian city-states came to dominate political, social, and economic life. urban society
Section 1 –The Renaissance witnessed the rise of a secular viewpoint of wealth and material items. secular The Italian Renaissance (cont.) –The Renaissance occurred during a time of recovery from the disasters of the fourteenth century: the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. instabilitydecline Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 –The Renaissance also stressed the individual ability of human beings. Well- rounded individuals, such as Leonardo da Vinci, emphasized the belief that individuals could create a new social ideal. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 With the lack of centralized power, Italian city-states such as Milan, Venice, and Florence played a crucial role in Italian economics and politics. Milan’s location as a crossroads between the coastal Italian cities and the Alpine passes made it a very wealthy state. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 In 1447, Francesco Sforza conquered Milan using an army of mercenaries. Sforza created wealth for the government by creating an efficient tax system. Venice was also located in a strategic position, as a trading link between Asia and Western Europe. Venice became the cultural center of Italy. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 In 1434, Cosimo de’ Medici and his family came to control Florence using their wealth and personal influence. Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici later ruled the city. Powerful monarchial states in Europe were attracted to the wealth of the Italian city- states, and in 1494 Charles VIII of France occupied Naples in southern Italy. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 The Spanish replied to the Italian cries of assistance and engaged the French in a 30- year war on the Apennine Peninsula. The turning point of the war came in 1527 when soldiers and mercenaries of Spain’s King Charles I, who had not been paid in months, sacked Rome. Spain became the dominant force in Italy. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) Renaissance Italy, 1500
Section 1 Machiavelli on Power Machiavelli’s The Prince has profoundly influenced political leaders.
Section 1 Niccolò Machiavelli wrote a book that influenced political thought in Italy and eventually all of Europe. In his influential work, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote about how to acquire and hold political power. He stated that a ruler must put the state first and not focus on moral principles. Machiavelli’s rejection of popular Christian values would have a profound influence on the political leaders who followed. Machiavelli on Power (cont.)
Section 1 Renaissance Society Changes in the social classes occurred during the Renaissance.
Section 1 Despite being the minority, nobles dominated sixteenth-century Europe during the Renaissance. Nobles were expected to live up to certain ideals of European aristocracy. These ideals were expressed in Baldasarre Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier. Peasants continued to make up the bulk of European society but were gaining more independence during the Renaissance. Renaissance Society (cont.)
Section 1 The growing numbers of townspeople were segregated into social groups. Patricians dominated the social and economic aspect of urban areas. Below them were the burghers, followed by the poverty-stricken workers and the unemployed. Renaissance Society (cont.)
Section 1 The family bond provided a great deal of security to Renaissance-era Italians. As in many societies, a dowry was required in marriage contracts.dowry Renaissance Society (cont.)
Section 2-Key Terms People, Places, and Events Petrarch Dante Chaucer Canterbury Christine de Pizan Raphael Michelangelo Flanders Jan van Eyck Albrecht Dürer
Section 2 Italian Renaissance Humanism Humanism, based on study of the classics, revived an interest in ancient Latin; but many authors wrote great works in the vernacular.
Section 2 A key intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism.humanism Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. Petrarch believed that intellectuals had a duty to live an active civic life and put their study of the humanities to the state’s service. The humanist emphasis on classical Latin led to an increase in the writings of scholars, lawyers, and theologians. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
Section 2 The Italian author Dante and the English author Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in vernacular, making vernacular literature very popular. vernacular Dante’s masterpiece was the story of the soul’s journey to salvation, called the Divine Comedy. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales used English dialect to tell the tale of pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, England. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
Section 2 Christine de Pizan wrote in French dialect defending women and their ability to learn if given the same educational opportunities as men. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
Section 2 Renaissance Education Education during the Renaissance focused on the liberal studies.
Section 2 The humanist movement led to changes in education. Humanists believed that individuals could attain wisdom and virtue by studying liberal studies. Physical education was also emphasized. attain Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence, letters, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music. Renaissance Education (cont.)
Section 2 Physical education: javelin throwing, archery, dancing, wrestling, hunting, and swimming. The goal of humanist educators was to create complete citizens, not great scholars. Humanist schools were the model for European education until the twentieth century. Renaissance Education (cont.)
Section 2 Italian Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced great artists and sculptors such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.
Section 2 Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature through a human-focused worldview. Frescos created the illusion of three dimensions, leading to a new realistic style of painting.Frescosstyle Realistic portrayal of the individual, especially nude depictions, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Section 2 Advances in understanding human movement and anatomy led to advances in Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The final era of Italian Renaissance painting (1490 to 1520) is known as the High Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic painting and sought to advance to idealized forms of nature and humans. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Section 2 Raphael was a well known artist for his paintings of the madonna. His works reveal a world of balance, harmony, and order. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, and architect. His depictions of idealized humans are meant as a reflection of divine beauty. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)
Section 2 The Northern Artistic Renaissance Northern European artists, especially those in the Low Countries, portrayed their world realistically but in a different way than did the Italian artists.
Section 2 Artists in the Low Countries (today’s Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) also sought to portray their world realistically. As opposed to Italian artists who perfected their work on the large, open spaces of Italian churches, Northern European artists painted on much smaller canvases. One of the most important art schools in northern Europe was in Flanders, one of the Low Countries. The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)
Section 2 Artists such as Jan van Eyck were among the first to use and perfect oil painting. Artists from northern Europe, such as German Albrecht Dürer, traveled to Italy to study the Italian standards and laws of perspective. The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)
Section 3-Key Terms People, Places, and Events Martin Luther Desiderius Erasmus Wittenberg Ninety-five Theses Edict of Worms Charles V Bohemia Hungary Peace of Augsburg
Section 3 During the second half of the fifteenth century, adherents of Christian humanism sought to reform the Catholic Church.Christian humanism Christian humanists believed that humans could improve themselves and thus improve society. Prelude to Reformation (cont.) Europe After the Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Section 3 Desiderius Erasmus thought that external forms of medieval religion such as pilgrimages, fasts, and relics were unnecessary and that inner piety derived from religious philosophy was more important. Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
Section 3 Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church: –Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics and material goods than spiritual guidance. –Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties.ignorant Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
Section 3 –An automatic means of obtaining salvation, such as the collection of relics, was being presented to the people. salvation –The use of indulgences was used to avoid punishment for sin.indulgences Prelude to Reformation (cont.)
Section 3 Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. Martin Luther (cont.) He believed that humans would be saved by their faith in God and not by the good works done in His name.
Section 3 Luther did not want to break away from the Church, only to reform it. He wrote a list of his grievances, known as the Ninety-five Theses, and copies were sent all over Germany. In 1521, Luther was excommunicated for attempting to get German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German church. Martin Luther (cont.)
Section 3 The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw, and his works were banned. Many German princes who supported Luther confiscated Church land, and a government church was established. A new religious service which consisted of reading the Bible, preaching the word of God, and songs, became the basis of the doctrine known as Lutheranism. Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith. Martin Luther (cont.)
Section 3 The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by Charles V who wanted the empire to remain Catholic. The empire included Spain, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, and Naples. Problems with the Ottoman Turks, French rivalry, and the alliance of the German kingdoms prevented Charles from asserting military power over the Protestant Reformation in Germany. Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)
Section 3 In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars by accepting the division of Christianity. German rulers, but not the German people, could choose their own religion. Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)
Section 4-Key Terms People and Places Ulrich Zwingli Zürich John Calvin Geneva King Henry VIII Ignatius of Loyola Trent
Section 4 In Zürich, Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli was influential in reforming the Catholic Church. His Protestant movement spread through Switzerland. John Calvin was a Frenchman whose conversion to Protestantism forced him to flee to Switzerland. Calvin believed in an all-powerful God and the idea of predestination. predestination Divisions in Protestantism (cont.) European Religions, 1600
Section 4 Calvin’s ideas led to the rise of Calvinism which soon became more popular than Lutheranism. Calvin worked to reform the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva soon became the center of Protestant reform in Europe, and its missionaries were sent all over to convert the local populations. Divisions in Protestantism (cont.)
Section 4 King Henry VIII of England established the Church of England when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. annul The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the king of England the official head of religious doctrine, with control over discipline, clerical appointments, and breaking ties with the pope. Henry’s Church of England was very similar to Catholicism, although after his death English officials attempted to make it more “Protestant”. Reformation in England (cont.)
Section 4 In 1553, Henry’s daughter, Mary, came to power and attempted to restore Roman Catholicism. Her efforts, including the burning of more than 300 Protestants, earned her the nickname of “Bloody Mary.” Reformation in England (cont.)
Section 4 Anabaptists were Protestant reformers who did not want to give power to the state. Anabaptists believed: Anabaptists (cont.) –Religion should be voluntary; baptism occurred as an adult. –All believers were equal; any member could become a minister. –Separation of state and church; refused to bear arms or serve in military positions
Section 4 –The religious and political beliefs of the Anabaptists seemed radical, and they were persecuted by Catholics and Protestants. Anabaptists (cont.)
Section 4 With the rise of Protestantism came the end of celibacy for Church leaders. Women were subservient, and their roles were obedience to their husband and to bear children. Protestants expected Jews to convert to Lutheranism. When they refused, Protestants such as Martin Luther wrote that Jewish synagogues and homes should be destroyed. Reformation and Society (cont.) Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Beliefs
Section 4 The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation was a Catholic Reformation. A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits, a group who swore allegiance to the pope. Jesuit missionaries were influential in spreading Catholicism in Germany and the rest of the world. Catholic Reformation (cont.)
Section 4 Pope Paul II led a reformation of the papacy, ending corruption either real or perceived. The pope, archbishops, bishops, and other theologians met irregularly at the Council of Trent to discuss Church matters and establish Catholic doctrine. Catholic Reformation (cont.)
VS 1 THE RENAISSANCE in Italy and Northern Europe Milan, Venice, and Florence became centers of Renaissance learning and culture. Machiavelli’s views on gaining and holding power influenced political leaders. Humanist education focused on liberal studies. Artists sought to portray the world realistically.
VS 2 THE REFORMATION Begins Erasmus and other Christian humanists paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. Catholic teaching stressed faith and good works, but Luther believed that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. The Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars and allowed German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.
VS 3 THE REFORMATION Spreads Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism. Henry VIII established the Church of England for political rather than religious reasons. Anabaptists believed in the total separation of church and state. Pope Paul III took steps to reform the Catholic Church.