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The Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing

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1 The Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing
(CAMM) Towards Low-Cost, Mass-Produced Ubiquitous Electronics Bahgat Sammakia, Mark D. Poliks, Mary Beth Curtin USDC Flexible Displays and Microelectronics Conference, February, 2007

2 CAMM Mission The CAMM will demonstrate the feasibility of roll-to-roll electronics manufacturing by acquiring prototype tools and establishing processes capable of producing low volume test bed products.

3 Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing
Applications Sensors & Reliability Material & Process Suppliers Army Flexible Display Center Process Equipment Novel Packaging Fundamentals Devices

4 CAMM Revenue Sources USDC equipment awards - $ 11.5M New York State
-- “High Tech Commercialization” - $21M with over $4M allocated for CAMM -- New York State Office of Science, Technology and Academic Research (NYSTAR) - $1.7M Federal Government -- NASA and DoD: $8M for R2R line infrastructure, prototypes for space and defense applications -- Peer reviewed grants Industrial Memberships -- Memberships projected at 8 Full Partners and 12 to 15 Participating Members Company specific projects and test-beds

5 CAMM Organizational Structure
Deans of Watson School of Engineering Harpur College School of Management Cornell University Fundamentals Materials & Processes Christopher Ober Michael Thompson Emmanuel Giannelis George Malliaras Gerald Sonnenfeld Binghamton University Vice President for Research Terrence Kane Associate Director Economic Development Bahgat Sammakia -- CAMM Director Mark Poliks CAMM Technical Director Mary Beth Curtin Admin & Development Director Wayne Jones Education & Outreach Director M DeGennaro Project Coordinator Laboratories L Lehman, Ph.D. S3IP Laboratory Manager New Professional Hire (start 4/15) Research Scientist Christopher Chase Senior Technician P Moschak, EI Facility Manager Applications Industrial Test Vehicles Prototypes CJ Zhong CAMM Economic Development Technology Transfer & Licensing Materials CJ Zhong Howard Wang & Timothy Singler CAMM Research Funding Development Theresa Partell Design Electrical-Mechanical-Thermal How Lin, EI Process Development Tool Qualification Daryl Santos ECAT IEEC Interface Tool Development Paul Wickboldt, Consultant Sarah Lam Mohammed Khasawneh Frank Egitto,EI Kim Blackwell, EI Metrology Surface & interface Science SB Park Junghyun Cho Communications & Marketing

6 New York State Center of Excellence on Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center at Binghamton University Expertise resident at the Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center (S3IP), a NYS Center of Excellence. Includes collaborations with the CAMM, the Integrated Electronics Engineering Center (IEEC), a NYS Center of Advanced Technology, the Institute of Materials Research (IMR), and the Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Systems (CASE). Analytical and Diagnostics Laboratory $15M in instrumentation including SEM, TEM, FIB, optical microscopes, metrology tools, mesoscale fabrication, vibrations, and 6” micro fabrication lab. Facilities will be available to CAMM members and partners

7 S3IP Analytical and Diagnostics Laboratory
Dr. Lawrence Lehman, Lab Manager Sample Prep, Metallography FIB Mesoscale Machine Shop TEM SEM X Ray Tools SEM / AFM & sample prep Microscopy, thermal analysis, laser vibrometry

8 S3IP Analytical and Diagnostics Laboratory
EM Suite SEM: Zeiss Supra 55 VP, Analytical Ultra High Resolution FESEM, w/ EDAX Pegasus EDS + EBSD SEM: Zeiss EVO50XVP SEM TEM: 200-kV Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscope FEI FIB: Dual Beam-SEM/FIB Surface Analysis Lab Ellipsometer Profilometer (non contact), Profilometer (Stylus) AFM X-ray Tools X-ray Diffraction, Panalytical X'Pert MRD Pro X-ray imaging system: Phoenix nanome/x Real Time X-Ray Analysis System Small Angle Scattering X-ray tool Thermal Analysis Suite Thermal Analysis Instrument suite; DSC, TGA, DMA, TMA, Rheometer, TG-MS Flash Thermal Diffuse Tool Optical / Acoustic Imaging Lab Upright Metallograph: Axioimager M1m Inverted Metallograph: Axiovert microscope Motorized Stereo Microscope w/ 2 cameras: (Stereo Imaging) 15 Stereo inspection microscopes: DV4 Stereo Microscope Image processing work stations #1 and #2 Heating and Cooling stage Optical / Acoustic Imaging Lab Micro Particle Imaging Velocimeter Ultra-fast Laser Confocal Imaging System High speed DIC camera Laser Dopler Vibrobrometer CSAM Acoustic Microscope Miscellaneous equipment Ink Jet Research setup GC-MS SEM Prep Lab Specimen preparation ion beam tool for SEM Disc Punch, Ultrasonic cutter, Dimple Grinder Ion Mill, Plasma Cleaner Carbon Evaporator & Metal Sputter coater Twin Jet Thinner, Wire Saw Metallographic Prep Lab Automatic Polisher Manual Polisher Diamond Saw, RPM Low Speed Diamond Band Saw, RPM 2 Unmounted specimen polishing system Diamond Band Saw Meso-Scale Machining Tools Hardinge HLV Lathe Levin Instrument Lathe w/Cabinet Levin Microdrilling Machine w/Cabinet Levin Micro Drill Press-machine, precision lathe Hardinge (Bridgeport) CNC/Manual Milling Machine Production Drill Press 15" ZCorp Spectrum 510+ Rapid Protyping Tool

9 CAMM Facilities at Endicott Interconnect Technologies Peter Moschak, Facility Manager
Panel Microfabrication Laboratory - $1M in tooling - Feature sizes greater than 1 m - Suitable for prototyping and early development Initial tool set by May 2007 Tamarack projection printer KDF sputter-down system New CAMM Clean Room - $430K Project Project completed December, 2006 Ready for Azores tool (first CAMM tool) delivery in Feb 2007 and other tools to follow in 2007 and 2008

10 CAMM Facilities at Endicott Interconnect
Removed HTCC ~ 64,000 square feet per floor Lab -- 53,000 sq ft lab & Service Core sq ft

11 Clean Room Expansion Completed
Wall opening for vacuum deposition View toward existing clean room Pass through to spray tools Azores tool location (left)

12 System Supplier *USDC supported Defined Systems
Precision Lithography Stepper* Azores Large High Vacuum Coater* CHA Second High Vacuum Coater In purchase High Vacuum Coating Services CPI In-line Defect Inspection* ECD-IV OLED Evaporation Source* KJL Cleaning/Wet Process Kraemer Koating Wet Stripper/Developer Höllmüller Siegmund Precision Wet Coat & Bake Frontier Industrial Manual Inspection Table TBD *USDC supported

13 Cleaning/Wet Processing
Scrub/ Rinse Poly Tank SS Tank Rewind Unwind Air Knife Kraemer Koating, 2001 6” to 14” width Designed for cleaning and/or wet processing Recirculation w/ cascading possible 0.2 to 10 FPM 0.5 PLI to 1.6 PLI Tool ready for installation

14 Wet Stripper/Developer
Hollmuller-Siegmund (MacDermid) Up to 15” web width Designed for develop & strip processing Heated tanks: three process and two rinse Stripper: all stainless steel (formerly DuPont Riston II S-1100X) Developer: all polypropylene (formerly DuPont Riston II D-2000) tool now ready for use TMAH/NaOH(aq) Air Knife New Northfield Automation web handling in place

15 Precision Lithography
Azores Corporation Based on a proven FPD stepper 8” width, can handle up to 24” with new chucks g – line (436 nm); 4 m L/S; mm/min 400 ppm distortion compensation Requires hole-punch pattern for pre-alignment Time line July 06: Customer demonstration Aug 06: Start facilities acceptance tests Sept 06: Start CAMM staff training at Azores Oct. 20: FAT started Jan 07: Complete factory acceptance tests Mar 07: System arrives at CAMM Web handlers in test

16 CHA High Vacuum Coater CHA Industries, 2006
8’ to 24”web width, ~1000ft of 7mil 5 standard PVD stations or flexible configurations, with open bay Interleaf capability to be included No front surface contact ~10-7 Torr vacuum Timeline Significant delays CHA re-bid remainder of job Weekly status review by USDC Estimated delivery to CAMM: YE07

17 Second High Vacuum Coater
Timeline: Delivery/Installation 9 months after purchase

18 HV Coating at CPI Potential source of coating services at Centre for Process Innovation, CPI (Wilton, England). Bobst Optilab Web widths: 20” 12 to 250 m Roll diameter 16” 6” core Class 1000 clean room Up to four sputter zones: Single and twin cathodes Planar and rotatable Separate plasma treatment w/cooled drum

19 ECD-IV Defect Inspection
Web scratch identification and defect mapping Two component system web (in-line) inspection “head” web handling system Inspection Width of 6” (extendable) Target defect size to detect:  (1 to 5) m Scratch detection algorithm ( 1 x 10 m) Web location tracking & mapping of defects Pass/fail sensitivity can be set minimum defect size: 3 m or less Web handling: widths up to 24” 6” core & roller diameter 2 to 200 m Interleaf capable Timeline: 2Q shipment to CAMM 2H ongoing testing program with ECD support verify performance

20 Precision Wet Coating & Bake
Start: Outsource Later: In-House Frontier Industrial, Towanda, PA High precision slot-die coating & bake Films down to 0.07 m thickness Clean room capability Web handling: interleafing and winding Contract services by purchase order DynaCoat

21 Scanning Projection Lithography
Tamarack UV projection Non-contact projection printer NA from 0.07 to 0.14 400 x 500 mm expose area 2 kW mercury short arc lamp > 3000 mW/cm2 BB UV ( nm) Filter selectable I, I+H, H+G, G line 4 m resolution (NA=0.14) Positive & negative resists, 2 to 100 m To be delivered May 2007

22 In-Line Sputter Down, Batch Deposition System
KDF Pallet size 20” x 20” (minimum) Single-ended loading Dual-level vacuum load lock Stainless steel (304) chambers Shielded sputter targets (4), DC/RF initially Cu (2), Cr, Ti Ultimate pressure ≤ 10-7 torr Substrate pre-heat Plasma etch (Ar or O2) & RIE To be delivered June 2007 KDF 900 Series

23 First Year Research Projects
Photolithography on Flexible Substrates Roll-to-Roll (R2R) Fabrication of Flexible Sensor Arrays (FSA) on Polymer Substrates Materials and Processing for Inkjet Printing Fabrication of Flexible Electronics Exploratory Research in Inkjet Printing of Functional Electronics Materials on Surface Energy-Modified Flexible Substrates Adaptive Human-Centered Automation for Control of Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing Systems Wrinkling of the Multi Layered Laminate for Flexible Display During Processing and Thermal Loading Oxygen and Moisture Barrier Coatings for Organic Electronics NYSTAR / CAMM Supported Research Activities at Cornell University

24 Photolithography on Flexible Substrates Mark Poliks, Bahgat Sammakia, Daryl Santos
Three graduate student research assistants: Hao Zhang, Srikanth Poranki and Denisse Yepez. Team is working with Azores Corp on the tool acceptance, qualification and training. Project established to define the web based photo-lithography process for photoresists, web coating and wet processes needed to create 2 – 10 m features on flexible substrates.

25 Photolithography on Flexible Substrates Mark Poliks, Bahgat Sammakia, Daryl Santos
Registration and substrate dimensional stability will be characterized for PET (and PEN, PI) in single and multiple photolithography passes; an analytical model will be developed to characterize the materials and process interactions. Team has received additional training at the Web Handling Training course at OSU Web Handling Research Center and at the CNF at Cornell University. In 2007 team will develop a process to create a continuous flexible circuit array on PET with variable size test patterns: 2 – 100 m.

26 C. J. Zhong, Susan Lu and Jin Luo
Roll-to-Roll (R2R) Fabrication of Flexible Sensor Arrays (FSA) on Polymer Substrates C. J. Zhong, Susan Lu and Jin Luo Task Description - Design and R2R fabrication of FSA chips - Optimization of nanostructured thin films on FSA chips, - Feasibility & characterization of R2R fabrication process. Deliverables - a method for assembling nanostructured thin films on FSAs - feasibility for fabricating FSA chips on polymer substrates - feasibility for R2R processing Completed the initial design of FSA masks, for both R2R processing and standard microfabrication: ongoing. Tested PET polymer substrate in exposures to different solvents: demonstrated the usability of PET. Goal by end of 2007: qualification of Azores & wet processing tools by creation of 10 ft continuous sensor array with micron sized features

27 PCB on arbitrary substrate
Materials and Processing for Inkjet Printing Fabrication of Flexible Electronics Howard Wang This project aims at addressing key materials and processing issues in inkjet printing fabrication of polymeric thin film transistors, and developing printing tools with environmental control and in situ sintering and diagnostic capabilities. Silver nanoparticle synthesis and characterization Ink formulation for Dimatix printer Small angle scattering measurement of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) conformation in solutions PCB on arbitrary substrate 200 nm SEM: Deposited Ag NP

28 Exploratory Research in Inkjet Printing of Functional Electronics Materials on Surface Energy-Modified Flexible Substrates Timothy Singler Project will improve deposition methods for delivery of small amounts of functional materials to predefined areas on substrates. Goal is to make electronic materials attractive for use with R2R processing. Project will make use of inkjet technology for deposition of these electronic materials. Inkjet equipment identified and ordered. Collaborations established with -- Endicott Interconnect Technologies (substrate energy modification) and -- Levich Institute at CUNY (theoretical modeling of inkjet printing of colloidal suspensions)

29 Adaptive Human-Centered Automation for Control of Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing Systems Sarah Lam and Mohammed Khasawneh Develop a conceptual framework for a computer-based training simulator for the photolithography tool. R2R lithography system will be used to test research on intelligent automation. Focus of project is on multiple levels of automation (LOAs) that adapt to the machine operator’s behavioral state. Will create a training simulator prototype and structure. Completed task analysis, error taxonomy, and software/hardware requirements and structure

30 Wrinkling of the Multi Layered Laminate for Flexible Display During Processing and Thermal Loading S.B. Park and Jia Gao Task Description: The deformation of thin film on flexible substrate under thermal loading. Compressively strained elastic film bonded to substrate can form wrinkles. Compliant substrate technology for flexible display applications requires the films to be flat as formation of wrinkles may dramatically change optical pattern. Development of effective finite element model using commercial FEM code for simulating the multi-layered laminate wrinkling as well as the stress analysis (2Q07) Development of instrumentation to validate FEM results and identify failure modes. (4Q07) Anticipated Results: Establish effective finite element modeling guidelines for predicting the wrinkle formation and growth of various geometries of interest and failure metrics for the composite structure under thermal loading. Project awarded in January, 2007.

31 Project awarded in January 2007.
Oxygen and Moisture Barrier Coatings for Organic Electronics Junghyun Cho Project will use self assembled monolayers as a template for the deposition of ceramic barrier coatings on polymer substrates, as well as on OLED. Goal is to provide enabling processes and materials for the barrier coatings on R2R organic devices and structures. Project awarded in January 2007. Surface Modification SAM Surface Group Bonding Group Substrate b a c e d Precursor solution (supersaturated) Bulk precipitate Aggregate Schematic of precipitation processes in supersaturated precursor solution: a) nanocrystals (5-10 nm); b) aggregates (up to 1 mm); c) settling of an aggregate; d) uniformly adsorbed nanoparticles at the surface; e) an aggregate formed at the surface.

32 NYSTAR / CAMM Supported Research Activities at Cornell University Christopher Ober (coordinator), Emmanuel Giannelis, George Malliaras, Michael Thompson Focused on fundamental research aimed at new processes and materials for flexible electronics. This program is highly complementary and interactive with the Binghamton University and CAMM research programs. Electroluminescence and Photovoltaic Response in Ionic Junctions Made with Soft-Contact Lamination (Malliaras) Laser Transient Annealing of Organic Semiconductors for Flexible Plastic Substrates (Thompson and Malliaras) 3) BaTiO3 Films on Flexible Plastic Substrates via Pulsed Laser Annealing (Giannelis and Thompson) 4) Green Processing for Flexible Electronics using Supercritical CO2 (Ober and Malliaras)

33 Summary Tooling New CAMM clean room completed.
Azores tool to be delivered in February 2007 and qualification to begin during 1Q07. Wet spray process tool equipped with Northfield Automation handlers. Tool is ready for use. Tamarack and KDF systems to be delivered by June 2007. ECD-IV inspection tool to arrive 2Q07. Funding Over $ 30 million in NY State and Federal funds raised in support of S3IP and CAMM Research Over 11 CAMM funded research projects started since 3Q06 Personnel Mr. Peter Moschak named CAMM Facility Manager Mr. Christopher Chase hired as Senior Technician Dr. L. Lehman hired as research scientist in S3IP Second research scientist hired, to start 2Q07

34 For Further Information
Bahgat Sammakia, Director Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing Binghamton University Binghamton, NY

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