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GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain

2 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Keywords: Alloy, carbon steels, low-alloy steels, high-alloy steels Prior Learning: Identify & explain different extraction processes

3 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson I can: The properties of pig iron and how this limits its usefulness. The properties of pig iron and how this limits its usefulness. Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with coke. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5– 4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. That iron can be alloyed to make it more useful. That iron can be alloyed to make it more useful. Explain how the properties of alloys (but not smart alloys) are related to models of their structures. Explain how the properties of alloys (but not smart alloys) are related to models of their structures.

4 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain What are the properties of different metals?

5 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain gold (Au): This metal is unreactive. This is represented by having the band on stage, not mixing with the other elements and not doing very much. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu): These metals are heavy metals and are dressed up as heavy metal rockers. copper (Cu): This metal has been drawn into wires. aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti): These metals are reactive. In this scene, they are getting overexcited and knocking over a table. iron (Fe): This metal has rust patches and is struggling to lift the bar stools. steel (Fe wearing nerves of steel T shirts): These metal alloys have carbon atoms on their shoulders to show that they are alloys. The steel is shinier than the iron atom. Steel is easily lifting the bar stools that iron was unable to lift because it is stronger.

6 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Lets go back in time 3 years to Year 7 YEAR 10 YEAR 7 And draw (or make a model to show) the atom arrangement in a solid Now add a different sized particle to your model. What is this called?

7 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain What are the general properties of most metals? solid at room temperature Why do metals have these particular properties? high melting point good conductors of electricity and heat malleable: they can be shaped ductile: they can be drawn into wires strong dense

8 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain sea of electrons metal ions The atoms in a pure metal are in tightly-packed layers, which form a regular lattice structure. The outer electrons of the metal atoms separate from the atoms and create a sea of electrons. These electrons are delocalized and so are free to move through the whole structure. The metal atoms become positively charged ions and are attracted to the sea of electrons. This attraction is called metallic bonding.

9 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain How does the sea of electrons affect the properties of metals?

10 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Delocalized electrons in metallic bonding allow metals to conduct heat and electricity. This makes heat transfer in metals very efficient. Delocalized electrons also conduct electricity through metals in a similar way. For example, when a metal is heated, the delocalized electrons gain kinetic energy. These electrons then move faster and so transfer the gained energy throughout the metal. heat

11 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Metals are usually strong, not brittle. When a metal is hit, the layers of metal ions are able to slide over each other, and so the structure does not shatter. The metallic bonds do not break because the delocalized electrons are free to move throughout the structure. metal after it is hit force This also explains why metals are malleable (easy to shape) and ductile (can be drawn into wires). metal before it is hit

12 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain

13 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Investigating Alloys How would you investigate the strength of alloy wires? What will you change? (The independent variable) What will you measure? (The dependent variable) How would you make it a fair test? (Controlled variables)

14 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain On a plain piece of paper add information from the following slides to create a mind map on iron including; Alloying Extraction Properties Chemical information (Anything else you wish to include)

15 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Most iron is converted into steels. Removing all impurities would produce pure iron. Pure iron has a regular arrangement of atoms, with layers that can slide over each other, and so is soft and easily shaped, but too soft for many uses. The iron collected from a blast furnace is only 96% pure. molten iron hot air molten slag raw materials Usually, this product will be treated further because the impurities make iron brittle.

16 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, including carbon, nickel and chromium. Steel is stronger than pure iron and can be used for everything from sauce pans… …to suspension bridges!

17 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain The atoms of other elements are different sizes. When other elements are added to iron, their atoms distort the regular structure of the iron atoms. The atoms in pure iron are arranged in densely-packed layers. These layers can slide over each other. This makes pure iron a very soft material. It is more difficult for the layers of iron atoms in steel to slide over each other and so this alloy is stronger than pure iron.

18 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain OVERVIEW - Steel Steels are alloys, since they are mixtures of iron with carbon and other metals. The different sized atoms distort the layers in the structure of the pure metal, making it more difficult for them to slide over each other, and so alloys are harder. Alloys can be designed to have properties for specific uses. Low carbon steels are easily shaped, high carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion.

19 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Steel is not a single substance & there are lots of different steels all being an alloy of iron with either carbon and/or other elements. low carbon steel contains less than 0.25% carbon Soft and easily shaped. Not as strong as high carbon steel but less likely to shatter. high carbon steel contains more than 0.5% carbon. Very strong but brittle. 1. CARBON STEEL: made by alloying Fe with small amounts of C (from 0.03-1.5%). They are the cheapest to make & are used for car bodies, knives, ships, machinery, containers, structural steel for buildings.

20 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Nickel-steel very resistant to stretching forces so are used for long- span bridges, military armour-plating Tungsten-steel operates well under very hot conditions so it is used to make high-speed tools. 2. LOW-ALLOY STEEL: made by alloying Fe with small amounts of other metals (from 1-5%). They are more expensive & may contain metals like Ni, Cr, Mn, V Ti and W. Each giving a different property.

21 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Chromium-steel strong with chemical stability it is mixed with between 12-15% Cr and often some Ni This is also known as stainless steel These are used to make cooking utensils & cutlery, chemical reaction vessels because they combine hardness & strength with a resistance to corrosion (they do not rust!) 3. HIGH-ALLOY STEEL: made by alloying Fe with large amounts of other metals. They are EVEN more expensive & may contain metals like Ni, Cr, Mn, V Ti and W. Each giving a different property.

22 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain

23 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain

24 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Refs Decision If its true it stays, if its false SEND IT OFF! Yellow = TRUEBlue = FALSE Yellow = TRUE, Blue = FALSE Steel is a mixture All steels contain cobalt (Co) Stainless steels are expensive Stainless steels rust because they contain iron The molecular formula for steel is St

25 GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You DO need to know the 3 main types of steel (carbon, low-alloy & high-alloy) & identify what they contain Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson I can: The properties of pig iron and how this limits its usefulness. The properties of pig iron and how this limits its usefulness. Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with coke. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5– 4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. That iron can be alloyed to make it more useful. That iron can be alloyed to make it more useful. Explain how the properties of alloys (but not smart alloys) are related to models of their structures. Explain how the properties of alloys (but not smart alloys) are related to models of their structures.


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