1. Green Economy Origins and Context UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
Global crises provide an Opportunity to reconsider Traditional growth models 1. GEI Conceptual Issues Shifting to Green Economy UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Global momentum for transition to a green economy -G20 reaffirmed commitment to move toward greener, more sustainable growth - UN CSD 2012 (Rio+20): green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication Food Crisis Financial Crisis Fuel Crisis
4 New paradigm: planetary boundaries The inner green shading represents the proposed safe operating space for nine planetary systems. The red wedges represent an estimate of the current position for each variable. The boundaries in three systems (rate of biodiversity loss, climate change and human interference with the nitrogen cycle) have already been exceeded. Blue water consumption = 4,000-6,000 cu km per year (danger zone) Current consumptive water use = 2,600 cu km per year Sources: http://www.nature.com/news/specials/planetaryboundaries/index.html;
What is good about the GEI? 3. GEI Analysis UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE A Green Economy can be defined as one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. What is a Green Economy?
UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Source: United Nations Human Development Index Meets minimum criteria for sustainability Meeting the dual goals of sustainability – High human development and low ecological impact Source: WWF Living Planet Report 2006 Green Economy: A Challenge in Two Dimensions
2. Green Economy Report Key Sectors and Initial Findings UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
Modeling Enabling Conditions Agriculture Building Cities Energy Finance Forest Manufacturing Tourism Transport Waste Water
UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Selecting and driving transformation in key sectors - critical or highly material for greening the global economy Green Economy: Approach and Focus UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE On enabling conditions (finance, subsidies, taxes, regulations, and related reforms that achieve GE objective) Enabling Conditions FOCUSAPPROACH taxes, regulations subsidies finance
Fisheries UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Source: Froese and Pauly (2004) Business as usual is not an option: State of fish stocks
Reversing harmful subsidies Investments Strengthening political consensus Managing Transition Fiscal policies Type of subsidies ImpactExampleAmount (US dollars in 2003) GoodEnhance the conservation of fish stocks over time Funding fisheries management/ Using government spending to operate marine protected areas $ 7.9 bn BadLead to overcapacity and excessive catches Fuel subsidies$ 16.2 bn UglyCan either conserve a fish-stock or deplete it further Buyback (or decommissioning) to fishing vessel to reduce a fleet size $ 3 bn Types of subsidies – leave $ 8 bio good subsidies: MPAs, fleet buyback, skills training Source: Sumeila et al (2006) Example: Fisheries sector UNEP – Green Economy Initiative Fisheries
UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Source: Fogarty & Botsford, (2007), Oceanography 20 (3); pp 112-123 73% of the US haddock catch are taken within 5 km of a fishery closed area, off the New England Coast. Distribution of fishing effort around Georges Bank closed areas
Key finding: A green economy stimulates growth, exceeding BAU over time… GDP growth (%)
…while reducing ecological scarcities and environmental risks
3. Green Economy Advisory Services UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
Technical assistance to countries seeking to make a transition to a Green Economy Rapid response to countries with strong commitment to Green Economy A Demand-led approach… Supporting the development of strategies to green national economies building on national development priorities, forging extensive partnerships, and enhancing analytical capacities in countries.
…with important GE leaders acting as change agents… CountriesRoleGE engagement ChinaBRICSAdvisory services BarbadosCaribbean SIDSAdvisory services South AfricaBRICS, Climate COP hostAdvisory services/Model South KoreaCo-chair Rio BureauAdvisory Services, GGGI MexicoChair G20MOU, Knowledge Platform UKEUNational Policy on Green Economy SwitzerlandPresident UNGANational Policy of Green Economy BrazilHost Rio+20TEEB studies, Green Economy Scoping IndiaBRICMinisterial Dialogue, support of TEEB and Green Accounting
2010 – 2011 rollout countries Africa: Regional project (Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa) East Asia: Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines Europe: Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine; Azerbaijan Latin America and Caribbean: Barbados, Brazil, Mexico – seeking to launch a regional initiative in the Caribbean West Asia: Jordan, League of Arab States Action completed Asia: East Asia Low-carbon Green Growth Report as an input to East Asia Forum China: Green Economy Forum, Green Economy in Chongqing City – starting sectoral studies under a 2nd phase China project, to feed into 2011-2015 plan Rep. Korea: Review of Green Growth Plan …leading to selective engagement across the globe
4. Prospects for Rio + 20 UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
The State of the Conversation Expanded dialogue focusing on social equity and poverty issues Going beyond definitions and towards agreements that there are many pathways to achieve sustainable development Need for a framework for action and commitments emphasizing key enabling conditions needed for a transition to greener economies
What can we seek from Rio + 20? Reaffirmed commitment to Rio Principles Agreement that the status quo is not sustainable and that change is needed Targeted outcomes emphasizing tools and commitments needed for a green economy transition, focusing on opportunities, including job creation, investments and growth in income
Targeted Outcomes on Green Economy – Knowledge sharing – knowledge platforms, best practices in greening economies, regional centers of excellence – Country Support – ramping up advisory services, capacity building, technology transfer, skills training – Financing mechanisms - new and additional for LDC readiness, and redirecting current flows
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