Presentation on theme: "Green Jobs – What are they, and how do we create them? Steven Stone UNEP."— Presentation transcript:
Green Jobs – What are they, and how do we create them? Steven Stone UNEP
A business-as-usual approach is no longer feasible: planetary boundaries constrain economic growth as traditionally conceived. Science tells us we are approaching and crossing bio-physical tipping points: environmental degradation threatens to undermine our collective well being. Threat exacerbated by a mounting social crisis, with growing unemployment and a daunting challenge to provide for new jobs and income opportunities, especially for youth. This calls for bold action to find new pathways for creating prosperity, decent work and income within a resource-constrained world. Rationale: Why is an Inclusive Green Economy needed?
3 The two of the defining challenges of the 21st century: Environment: Averting climate chan ge Protecting life-suppor t on earth Social challen ge: Decent work for all Well-being and dignity for the excluded
Current models of growth will undermine productivity overtime At least half of the global workforce, the equivalent of 1.5 billion people, will be aff ected by the transition to a greener economy. 8 key sectors are expected to play a central role: agriculture, forestry, fishing, energy, resource-intensive manufacturi ng, recycling, building and transport. Whereas a greener economy and more susta inable enterprises is creating tens of millions of green jobs: 15-60 million potential addition al jobs globally over the next two decades. The resource-intensive development model of th e past will lead to rising costs, loss of productivity and disruption of economic activity: productivity l evels would lower by 2.4% in 2030 and 7.2% by 2050 in a BAU (ILO Global Economic Linkages model). Source: ILO 2012, Working towards sustainable development: Opportunities for decent work and social inclusion in a green economy
Green jobs are decent jobs in agriculture, manufacturin g or services that: Reduce consumption of energy and raw materials Limit green house gas emissions Minimize waste and pollution Protect and restore ecosystems (Source: Green Jobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbon w orld UNEP/ILO/IOE/ITUC, 2008) Jobs are green by products/services or processes Green jobs include all jobs – shades of green Measurement is key and ongoing challenge What are green jobs?
UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Selecting and driving transformation in key sectors - critical or highly material for greening the global economy Green Economy: Approach and Focus UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE On enabling conditions (finance, subsidies, taxes, regulations, and related reforms that achieve GE objective) Enabling Conditions FOCUSAPPROACH taxes, regulations subsidies finance
Fisheries UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Source: Froese and Pauly (2004) Business as usual is not an option: State of fish stocks
Reversing harmful subsidies Investments Strengthening political consensus Managing Transition Fiscal policies Type of subsidies ImpactExampleAmount (US dollars in 2003) GoodEnhance the conservation of fish stocks over time Funding fisheries management/ Using government spending to operate marine protected areas $ 7.9 bn BadLead to overcapacity and excessive catches Fuel subsidies$ 16.2 bn UglyCan either conserve a fish-stock or deplete it further Buyback (or decommissioning) to fishing vessel to reduce a fleet size $ 3 bn Types of subsidies – leave $ 8 bio good subsidies: MPAs, fleet buyback, skills training Source: Sumeila et al (2006) Example: Fisheries sector UNEP – Green Economy Initiative Fisheries
India: Rural Employment Guarantee Act combining social protection and environmental services Right to 100 paid working days/year Adaptation, afforestation, water conservation/harvest ing 50 m. persons participated (2010-2011) 9
Promoting Green Youth Entrepreneurship in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Development Objective: Decent work for y oung Africans, both as a means for self empl oyment, and as job creation for others Goals: At least 11,000 new businesses esta blished; Creation of at least 23,000 new jobs Video: Pacesetter Lorna Rutto, Founder of Ecopost https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wFbo8pGNw8 2010-2012: e.g 4,680 students participated in green entrepreneurship program of Junior Achievement (worlds largest youth business network) In a 2011 competition, 31 Student Companies (43%) out of 73 created green businesses
Individual Capacity Renewable energies create green jobs, but skills need to catch up! Basic knowledge and competencies Skills for green jobs Leadership ILO Bringing green energy and green jobs to Bangladesh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7r5wALQg0 8&feature=player_embedded
PAGE Community 1. Current Green Economy Engagement 2. New Requests 3. Priority PAGE Countries (yellow dots are for New Requests) 4. Friends of PAGE (Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, Finland, Norway, S.Korea, UAE, EC)