2Road map The 1860 election in Missouri: teaching opportunities The European ContextA diverse state: no easy conclusionsMissouri splits the nation in halfComparisons that work:Missouri Democrats: moderate, war, peace, copperhead, “States-Rights,” conservative Germans ….Missouri Republicans: radicals, moderates, former Whigs, anti-Catholic Nativists, German wide-awakes, …The Election: national contest, local politics
5The crisis of democratic revolutions: the “forty-eighters” Unrest throughout Europe caused the Revolutions of 1848Middle-class liberals desired greater political participationNationalities demanded independenceConservatives manage to put down rebellions, remain in place; punitive aftermath
6Missouri: A Diverse People Before statehood: French, Spanish, Native American residents, as well as Indian and African slaves1830s: German Catholics from the wine regions1840s: radical Germans fleeing from political oppression1840s: Irish immigrants fleeing poverty and famineAbout 114,000 slavesOpposing viewpoints; two thirds were foreign-born
7Germans in Missouri: wine regions AugustaHerrmannOzark HighlandsOzark MountainSoutheastern MissouriCentral MissouriWestern Missouri
8Americans move to Missouri Settlers from the upper south: Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, and TennesseePro-slavery (though most did not own slaves)Democrats
101824 Freedom LawProvided that slaves who had resided in a free territory or state could sue for their libertyAbout 300 known suits; at least 2/3 were successfulMost of the successful suits were brought by female plaintiffsRachel v. Walker, 1834Dred and Harriet Scott,
271860 cartoon lampooning Democrat party divisions
28The Democrats were divided into 3 races and 2 parties The Republicans supported Lincoln because:He was moderate on slaveryFamed for Lincoln-Douglas debatesWould win Illinois (Western state, important swing state)The main issue in 1860: the extension of slaveryLincoln and Republicans barely campaign in the South; do not appear on any southern ballots except border statesMissouri is the only state in the Union to carry all 4 candidates in its slate
291860: Two momentous decisions for Missouri The Governorship: Claiborne Jackson vs. Gov. Robert Stewart (August 1860) – CFJ was a “Douglas” Democrat, secretly pro-secessionThe Presidency: Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge, and John Bell (November 1860)
30Governor Claiborne F. Jackson 1805 - 1862 Runs against Sample Orr, a Constitutional Union candidate… and against Gov. Hancock Lee Jackson, a Breckenridge Democrat… and also against James Gardenhire, a Republican
31Missouri 1860 gubernatorial results Claiborne Fox Jackson (SAD): 46.9 %Sample Orr (CU): %Hancock Lee Jackson: (BD) %James Gardenhire: (Rep.) %
361860 Election ResultsBell wins three states (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee)Breckenridge carried the SouthLincoln carried the Northern states and won the electoral vote, though earning less than 40% of all votes cast: Douglas won two statesOn December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union
43Inaugural, March 4, 1861In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it."34 I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.
44Camp Jackson"Oh! Oh! Oh! Ah! Ah! Ah!—The time of our glory is a-coming.We yet will see the time, when all of us will shine,And drive the Hessians from our happy land of Canaan."
46Two paths to radicalism: Politics and the Home Front Loyalty OathsForced enrollmentsPunitive finesExiling dissidentsDemocrats: what about a loyal opposition?The radicals have the floor!Women have to take over men’s work at homeDissident women are silenced or exiledNew opportunities for a diverse people