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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 3: Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers HPHE 1500 Dr. Ayers

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 Ontology Axiology Politics Ethics Some informal Definitions...

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Ontology The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality. The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality.... Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality... Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality Some informal Definitions...

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Axiology The study of values and the nature of values Some informal Definitions What values do you try to instill in others?

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Ethics Study of the a) nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; b) rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics). Study of the a) nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; b) rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics).... Making judgments about the right thing to do. Some informal Definitions...

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Some informal Definitions... Politics Judging what is best for the common good

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Ontology Axiology Politics Ethics These are all areas of study within the broader field of Philosophy These are all areas of study within the broader field of Philosophy Your actions and choices (i.e., your behavior) reflect your philosophy... Your position on issues, your values.

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field will help you articulate your views and positions. Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field will help you articulate your views and positions. Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter?... Try it! Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter?... Try it! Over time it will evolve, and change... But be sure you have one!

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Key developments in the 19 th & 20 th Centuries in the field...(a backdrop): Physical Education becomes a school subject Competitive sport becomes more accepted Fitness becomes valued in its own right Importance of play during childhood is recognized

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education The Gymnastics Philosophies Muscular Christianity Masculinity & Femininity Ideals Amateurism, Fair Play, & British ideals Character Education (See also Box 3.1, p. 59)

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 The Gymnastics Philosophies ( ) German and Swedish systems emerge within a period of strong Nationalism Both were similar in philosophy Main goal: Individual development, self-reliance Yet also strongly linked with National Defense (i.e., military preparedness)

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Muscular Christianity ( ) Emerged as Puritanism lost its grip on the young nation Reflects mutual understanding between sport & religion Ralph Waldo Emerson: the first wealth is health Achieving fitness and physical prowess also serves mental, moral and religious purposes Reached popularity via British likeness: ARNOLDISM ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitness toward reaching manliness, courage, patriotism, moral character, team spirit, & intellectual independence

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals 19 th Century: Increased acceptance of sport & fitness… But only for males! Vigorous activity and competitive sport viewed as harmful and unladylike for girls and women This was in stark contrast to prevailing view of men: virile, tough, aggressive, etc. Similar views were held in sport, fitness & Physical Education environments Title IX and feminism greatly accelerated the change process for women

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Discussion Questions How do you perceive Muscular Christianity? What is your perception of womens physical life in our society today?

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals Development of Sport in the late 1900s mirrored the growth of British Sport: Amateurism & Fair Play It was the wealthy in Britain who exuded these characteristics Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formed in 1888

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Character Education Through Physical Challenges Character Education Through Physical Challenges Kurt Hahns educational goal: Train character over intellect German Jew founder of Gordonstoun School in Scotland Kurt Hahns educational goal: Train character over intellect German Jew founder of Gordonstoun School in Scotland Fitness was an important component 40 min. activity breaks interspersed daily throughout classroom activities Youth challenged through vigorous outdoor activities to test courage and skill Ergo: The Outward Bound Movement

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Jean-Jacque Rousseau Jean-Jacque Rousseau Thomas Wood Thomas Wood John Dewey Johann Pestalozzi Johann Pestalozzi Johann Basedow Johann Basedow Friedrich Froebel Friedrich Froebel Clark Hetherington Clark Hetherington

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics movement to the Education-through- the-physical approach Based in part on the progressive education principles developed by John Dewey (most impt in history of American edu) John Deweys education agenda: Social reform through child-centered, natural education Students are active participants... Doing is as important as knowing... Mental and physical cannot/should not be separated Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia University Hence, the link between progressive education and education-through-the-physical Many early leaders trained in 1 st doc program at Teachers College (Columbia Univ) : main center for progressive education & education-through-the- physical philosophy

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Rousseau: Children are born good…their environment ruins them Strong advocate of physical activity, play, games & gymnastics as sensory experiences for a more holistic education School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Play could contribute to developing character: cooperation and competition Play could contribute to developing character: cooperation and competition Rousseau-influenced educators: Basedow, Pestalozzi, Froebel Each viewed physical activity, play as central to childrens development

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Jean-Jacque Rousseau Jean-Jacque Rousseau Thomas Wood Thomas Wood John Dewey Johann Pestalozzi Johann Pestalozzi Johann Basedow Johann Basedow Friedrich Froebel Friedrich Froebel Clark Hetherington Clark Hetherington

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept Became widely accepted as central to education and life Became widely accepted as central to education and life Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept: For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play. For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play. (Schiller, 1910) Schiller argued that PLAY was a basic, integrating mode of human behavior throughout life & across all cultures

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Discussion Question If/How do you think societys impression of PLAY impacts the publics perception of our profession?

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 The Early 20 th Century: Philosophies Come Together The Early 20 th Century: Philosophies Come Together Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form unique identities Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form unique identities Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well accepted and seen as critical to total development (though still favoring males) Participation in sport, fitness & physical education was useful b/c of the contributions it made to intellectual, physical, social & moral development

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Until the 1950s the Education-Through-the-Physical had not been challenged Until the 1950s the Education-Through-the-Physical had not been challenged Rise of new philosophical orientations: 1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in each area Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Play Education & Sport Education Experiential & Adventure Education Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Play Education & Sport Education Experiential & Adventure Education

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Human Movement philosophy Rudolph Laban*, Rosiland Cassidy & Elanor Metheny Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958 b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958 b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education Framework fostered subsequent specialization various sub-disciplines Offered school programs a more flexible/open approach to teaching in elem schools: Movement Education Associated teaching styles: Exploration & guided discovery

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 28 Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Humanistic Psychology emerged as dominant force in Education during the 60s/70s, emphasizing personal and social development Don Hellison publishes Humanistic Physical Education (1973) targeting personal development, interpersonal relationships and self-expression as primary goals for Physical Education A similar movement develops that condemns abuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes) Hellisons framework for developing personal & social responsibility has become ingrained in school Physical Education, notably those serving urban at-risk youth

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 Play Education & Sport Education Traditional philosophies viewed Physical Education as a means towards other outcomes (i.e., physical, social, mental, moral) Play for play sake (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny) Play for play sake (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny) First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to help students acquire the skills and appreciation for the activities themselves Play Education places motor play ( as seen in Physical Education) alongside music, art and drama as an institutionalized form of play fundamental to our culture

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 Play Education & Sport Education Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent curriculum model for school Physical Education programs Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent curriculum model for school Physical Education programs SE seeks to help students become competent, literate and enthusiastic sportpersons... To foster continued participation and contribution to creating a healthier sport culture In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 31 Experiential & Adventure Education Based on the character-education models from the 1800s Follows the core values and principles of Outward Bound (www.outwardbound.com) : Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility. Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility. Many school Physical Education programs infuse team building and adventure type activities both in-class and off-campus (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips)

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 32 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Fitness is in and BIG business. Targets entire population (i.e., youth through older adults) The need for better health is one explanation for its current popularity HOWEVER, reaching a state of Wellness is another reason Wellness is defined as: Absence of disease, as well as the ability to: cope with daily stressors develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships recognize accomplishment and personal growth think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor cope with daily stressors develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships recognize accomplishment and personal growth think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 How would you rate your level of wellness? Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is accepted as a central component of moving toward wellness Traditionally, wellness has been viewed as a matter of personal responsibility HOWEVER, current trends in sedentary lifestyles and obesity in the population at large, make it a public health and public policy concern.... A collective responsibility Ones health is strongly influenced by Socio-economic Status Since race and ethnicity is strongly correlated with SES, health is also a social and political issue

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 34 Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new Visions Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new Visions Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children and youth) New generations are increasingly attracted to extreme sports..... WHY?? Even these activities are becoming more institutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games) Fitness is now a major focus among older adults and retirees

35 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 35 Find a Friend Talk about your position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter Ontology Axiology Politics Ethics Due Wed: Write your Physical Education philosophy, including your: ontology, axiology, ethics and the political ramifications of your position


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