Presentation on theme: "Contemporary Issues in Sport and Exercise Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Contemporary Issues in Sport and Exercise Psychology Missouri Western State UniversityWilliam Russell, PhD, Dept. of HPER
2What is Sport Psychology? 2 main objectives:To understand how psychological factors affect in individual’s performanceTo understand how participation in sport and exercise affects one’s psychological development, health, and well-being.
3What Sport and Exercise Psychologists Do: Research roleTeaching roleConsulting rolePolicy Making / advocating role
4Global Sport Psychology Specialties: Clinical Sport PsychologyHave training in PSYCHOLOGY to learn about diagnose and treat emotional disordersLicensed by state boards to treat clinical conditionsHave additional training in sports & exercise sciencesEducational Sport Psychology:Extensive training in sport sciences – have large background in psychologyServes as mental coach / mental trainer – works through individual/group sessions and teaches the development of psychological skills
5Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: Psychophysiological Orientation:Best way to study behavior during sport / exercise is by examining physiological processes in the brain; brain-body connectionsEX: using biofeedback to train biathletes to shoot between heartbeats; examining changes in serotonin as explanation for psychological benefit of exercise
6Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: 2. Social Psychological OrientationAssumption is behavior is determined by interchange between person and their environmentEX: How does leader behavior influence team cohesion; Are people with high SPA more comfortable in same-gender exercise settings?
7Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: Cognitive-Behavioral Orientation:Emphasis is on athlete’s / exercisers thoughts and behaviorsEX: Is there a self-fulfilling prophecy linking self-talk and batting slumps?
8Main Organizations involved in Sport and Exercise Psychology: International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)The Sport Psychology Academy (SPA)Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)American Psychological Association Div. 47 (APA, Div. 47)American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)The United States Olympic Committee (USOC)
9Membership Comparisons of AAASP and NASPSPA: Interest AreasEx. & Sp Psych Motor Learning / Control Motor Developmentn = n=266 n=15538% % %Psychologists Sport Science Others:N=495 N=572 N=4045% 52% 3%
10Applied Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology and It’s Growing Pains: Concerned with extending theory/research to educate coaches, athletes, and parents regarding goals for facilitating optimal sport involvement and performance,Usually involves individual/group consulting and counselingMany specific concepts (goal setting, imagery, concentration, relaxation, imagery) BUTGeneral goal is teaching athletes mental skills necessary to perform consistently and realize their potential as people and athletes.Focal Areas of Applied Sport Psychology:Performance enhancement / interventionSocial PsychologyHealth and Exercise
111. Performance Enhancement / Intervention: Focus is on performance improvements in any achievement settingAlso concerned with effects of interventions on well-being of sport / exercise participantsExamples:Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) with athletesAttentional Training effectivenessFlow experiences in sport
122. Social Psychology Emphasis Uses theory / research to focus on group processes in sport & exercise settingsSocial factors are examined as they relate to athletes, coach, team, and spectatorsExamples of special interests:Achievement motivation (Achievement Goal Theory)Moral development through sportPeer relationships in physical activity and sportYouth sports (The reverse-dependency trap)Social Physique Anxiety in Sport and Exercise Settings (A problem at both ends of the spectrum)
133. Health and Exercise:Focuses on role of psych. Factors in exercise; as they pertain to resistance to disease development & remediation, coping with stress, and health promotionPrimary interest is link between mental and physical health.Examples of special interest areas:Problem-focused vs. emotion focused coping and healthHardiness and disease risk (Control, Challenge, Commitment)Exercise and PsychoneuroimmunologyPsychological benefits of exercise
14Major Splits in Recent Years within the Field: Sport PsychologySportPsychologyExercisePsychologyHealthPsychology
15Why the Need for Exercise Psychology? Prevalence of risk factors for CHD in the general US population for
17Behaviors are easier to maintain in environments that are supportive of that behavior- for better ….. Or worse…
18Sample Interest Areas within Exercise Psychology: Designing exercise programs to maximize psych. BenefitsExercise addictionsExercise adoption, maintenance, and adherenceExercise as a stress management techniqueGender / Sex-role influences on exerciseOveruse injuries in exercise settingsThe runners/exercisers’ highPsychotherapeutic influences of exercise for depressionPsychological benefits for specific populations
19The Certification Issue: AAASP Required Coursework for becoming an AAASP certified consultant EITHER SPORT SCIENCE OR PSYCHOLOGY COURSESCourses DescriptionProfessional ethics 1 courseSport psychology 3 courses in all subdisciplinesResearch Design, Stats or 1 course in any of these areaspsychological assessmentBiological bases of behavior 1 course in comparative psychology; physio psychologyCognitive Affective bases Course in cognition, motor development or motor learningSocial Bases of behavior 1 course in social psychology
20The Certification Issue: AAASP Required Coursework for becoming an AAASP certified consultant PRIMARILY SPORT SCIENCE COURSES:Course DescriptionBiomechanical / physiological bases 1 course in kinesio., Ex. Physio, BiomechanicsHistorical, philosophy, sociology 1 course in this area of sport sciSkills, techniques, analysis 1 methods course in sport areaPRIMARILY PSYCH COURSES:Psychopathology 1 course in abnormalCounseling skills course work to foster basic counseling skillsIndividual Behavior 1 course in developmental, personality theory, individual differencesSupervised Consulting Experience:Verification of at least 400 hours of supervised experience in exercise and sport psychology
21Achievement Goal Theory: 3 major factors in determining the motivation levels of children in youth sport settings:Goal OrientationTask-orientation – success is defined as self-referent improvementEgo-orientation – success is defined by social comparison and out-doing othersMotivational ClimateMastery climate – focus is on learning, effort, cooperative strategies, and skill developmentPerformance climate – competitive, beating teammates, demonstrating superiority over othersPerceived abilityHigh – greater competenceLow – less competence
22Ego-oriented children seek competence through comparison
23Ego orientation may undermine the value attached to fairness and justice in sport settings
24Who would you most want to have as a young athlete? Hi task/hi ego?Hi task/low ego?Low task/High ego?Low task/Low ego?