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Computation is a general term for any type of information processing. Information processing involves compilation and manipulation of data and calculations that give some useful results. Computation (Information processing) is a process following a well defined model that is understood and can be expressed in an algorithm, formula, etc.

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To derive results and for formulation of inferences from given data. For data management. Needed in Scientific experiments, Economics, Statistics, Finance, Analysis & Pattern recognition, etc. To solve problems.

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Information processing (and hence computation) becomes tedious and time consuming when Data is very large in number. Data is complex. Processing (calculation) is complex. Hence a need for faster computation. OUTCOME: New computational techniques & Invention of tools and machines for faster computation i.e. COMPUTERS

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(2400BC-300BC) Abacus (Babylonians) (80 BC) Antikythera Mechanism (Greeks) Use of beads and stones Fixed operation Simple Arithmetic operation Manually move the beads First complex special purpose calculator Astronomical calculations 72 levers Gave the position of Sun, Moon and other astronomical bodies on entering data. NOTE : Gravitation was not known then yet the relative position could be calculated INTRODUCTION OF SIMPLE MACHINES LIKE LEVERS IN COMPUTATION. It made complex computation faster (MECHANICAL COMPUTERS)

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(1500s AD) Mechanical Calculator (Leonardo da Vinci) (1600s AD) Napiers Bones (John Napier) Blue print (was never actually made) Use of gears Simple arithmetic operations Digit by digit calculation hence like all primitive calculators it was limited in operation and calculations INTRODUCTION OF LOGARITHM IN COMPUTATION Computation & calculations of very large number made easy Use of printed blocks(bones) Accuracy in operations of large numbers improve Manual operation easier

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(1621 AD) Slide Rule (William Oughtred) (1642 AD) Arithmetic Machine (Blaise Pascal) Printed slides Correspondence with length Manual operation Slides for a variety of calculation were prepared Made the process of calculation faster by introduction of already calculated data First mechanical digital calculator Use of gears for different operations Faster calculation Limited operations

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(1812 AD) Difference Engine & Analytical Engine (Charles Babbage- father of the computer ) Difference Engine Analytical Engine Long calculations possible with accuracy Repetition of operations Steam powered machine Operations take place automatically Fully automatic Fixed instruction program INTRODUCTION OF SELF OPERATING MACHINES FOLLOWING A FIXED PROGRAM It eliminated human participation in the process of calculation saving time and eliminating human error

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(1890 AD) Hollerith Tabulator (Dr. Herman Hollerith) (1906 AD) Invention of Vacuum tube (Lee De Forest) Information compilation and tabulation Data management for ease of computation Electrochemical Powered Use of punch cards First use- 1890 U.S. census INTRODUCTION OF BINARY SYSTEM OF NUMBERS FOR COMPUTATION This technique helped ease the storage of data. New machines to use this system were benefitted. It helped speed up computation by computers. Identification and storage of numbers of the binary system possible To be used in computers then that were to use Binary system of numbers Illuminates on application of potential difference across the tube

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(1941 AD) Z3 (Konrad Zuse) (1939 AD) First electronic digital computer (John V. Atanasoff & Clifford Berry) Electrically Powered Followed fixed program Not followed Binary system though INTRODUCTION OF PROGRAMMABLE COMPUTERS Helped create computers according to the need of computation. First programmable computer Used to solve complex engineering problems First to use Binary system Built using 2000 relays

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(1947 AD) ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) (John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr.) Use of 18,000 Vacuum tubes Input given using Punch cards Programmable by changing the wiring Complex First used in computation of artillery firing tables Occupied lot of space, weighed 30 tons

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(1947 AD) Invention of Transistor(Triodes) (William Shockley, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain of Bell Labs) INTRODUCTION OF TRANSISTORS MAKING COMPUTERS SMALLER IN SIZE This helped making of more portable computers, eased the process of computation and made computers faster Replaced relays and Vacuum tubes Use of semiconductors Doping done to create switching circuits that help process data in the binary system of numbers

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(1958 AD) Invention of first Chip (Integrated Circuit) (1960 AD) (Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments) IBM System/360 series of mainframe (G) computers (Gene Amdahl) Contains many transistors Made computers smaller and portable Contributed in building of computers capable of more complex programming. First general purpose computers to use ICs Beginning of age of speedy computation

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(1971 AD) First Microprocessor, 4004 (Ted Hoff) (1976 AD) Cray-I Supercomputer (Cray) Intel Processed 4-bit data Speed= 108 kHz 2000 transistors Saw the beginning of superfast computing in smaller space Vector processing Speed through architecture Speed=250 MFLOPS Beginning of Development of new technologies of supercomputing. RISE OF SUPERCOMPUTING

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World's first 1,000,000 transistor microprocessor Milestone (1989) Intel 486 (Intel) Meanwhile the number of transistors on a chip kept increasing and supercomputer technology kept upgrading to develop faster and faster computers. Some supercomputers: Cray-1, CDC Cyber 205, Cray X-MP/4, M-13, Cray- 2/8, ETA10-G/8, NEC SX-3/44R, Thinking Machines CM-5/1024, Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel, Intel Paragon XP/S 140, Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel, Hitachi SR2201/1024, Hitachi/Tsukuba CP-PACS/2048, Intel ASCI Red/9152, Intel ASCI Red/9632, IBM ASCI White, NEC Earth Simulator, IBM Blue Gene/L, IBM Roadrunner.Cray-1CDC Cyber 205Cray X-MPCray- 2ETA10NECThinking MachinesCMFujitsu Numerical Wind TunnelIntelParagonFujitsuNumerical Wind TunnelHitachi TsukubaIntelASCI RedIntelASCI RedIBMASCI WhiteNECEarth SimulatorIBM Blue Gene/LIBMRoadrunner (2004)Sony and IBM begin production of cell computer chips, a supercomputer on a chip designed to also be part of teams of chips

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(2008) IBM Roadrunner Roadrunner is a supercomputer built by IBM at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA. Currently the world's fastest computer, the US$133-million Roadrunner is designed for a peak performance of 1.7 petaflops, achieving 1.026 on May 25, 2008, [1][2][3] and to be the world's first TOP500 Linpack sustained 1.0 petaflops system. It is a one-of-a-kind supercomputer, built from commodity parts, with many novel design features.supercomputerIBMLos Alamos National LaboratoryNew MexicoUSApetaflopsMay 252008 [1][2][3]TOP500 Linpack

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