2 Charles Babbage English inventor 1791-1871 taught math at Cambridge Universityinvented a viable mechanical computer equivalent to modern digital computers
3 Babbage’s first computer difference enginebuilt in early 1800’sspecial purpose calculatornaval navigation charts
4 Babbage’s second computer Analytical enginegeneral-purposeused binary systempunched cards as inputbranch on result of previous instructionAda Lovelace (first programmer)machined parts not accurate enoughnever quite completedanalytical engine, 1834
5 invention of the light bulb, 1878 Sir Joseph Wilson SwanEnglish physicist and electricianfirst public exhibit of a light bulb in 1878Thomas EdisonAmerican inventor, working independently of Swanpublic exhibit of a light bulb in 1879had a conducting filament mounted in a glass bulb from which the air was evacuated leaving a vacuumpassing electricity through the filament caused it to heat up, become incandescent and radiate lightthe vacuum prevented the filament from oxidizing and burning up
6 Edison’s legacy Edison continued to experiment with light bulbs in 1883, he detected electrons flowing through the vacuum of a light bulbfrom the lighted filamentto a metal plate mounted inside the bulbthis became known as the Edison Effecthe did not develop this any further
7 invention of the diode (late 1800’s) John Ambrose Flemingan English physiciststudied Edison effectto detect radio waves and to convert them to electricitydeveloped a two-element vacuum tubeknown as a diodeelectrons flow within the tubefrom the negatively charged cathodeto the positively charged anodetoday, a diode is used in circuits as a rectifier
8 the switching vacuum tube, 1906 Lee de Forest introduced a third electrode into the vacuum tubeAmerican inventorthe new vacuum tube was called a triodenew electrode was called a gridthis tube could be used as both an amplifier and a switchmany of the early radio transmitters were built by de Forest using triodestriodes revolutionized the field of broadcastingtheir ability to act as switches would later be important in digital computing
9 on/off switches in digital computers earliest:electromechanical relayssolenoid with mechanical contact pointsphysical switch closes when electricity animates magnet1940’s:vacuum tubesno physical contacts to break or get dirtybecame available in early 1900’smainly used in radios at first1950’s to presenttransistorsinvented at Bell Labs in 1948John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William ShockleyNobel prize, 1956
12 transistor evolutionfirst transistor made from materials including a paper clip and a razor bladelater packaged in small IC’seventually came VLSIVery Large Scale Integrationmillions of transistors per chip
13 the integrated circuit (IC) invented separately by 2 people ~1958Jack Kilby at Texas InstrumentsRobert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor ( )1974Intel introduces the 8080 processorone of the first “single-chip” microprocessors
17 Moore’s law deals with steady rate of miniaturizion of technology named for Intel co-founder Gordon Moorenot really a lawmore a “rule of thumb”a practical way to think about somethingobservation that chip density about doubles every 18 monthsalso, prices declinefirst described in 1965experts predict this trend might continue until ~2020limited when size reaches molecular level
18 transistors - building blocks of computers microprocessors contain many transistors(ENIAC): ,500 vacuum tubes and relaysIntel 8088 processor (1st PC): 29,000 transistorsIntel Pentium II processor: million transistorsIntel Pentium III processor: million transistorsIntel Pentium 4 processor: million transistorslogically, each transistor acts as an on-off switchtransistors combined to implement logic gatesAND, OR, NOTgates combined to build higher-level structuresadder, multiplexor, decoder, register, …
19 Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), 1940’s an early computerdeveloped at UPennSize: 30’ x 50’ room18,000 vacuum tubes1500 relaysweighed 30 tonsdesignersJohn MauchlyJ. Presper Eckert
20 Intel 8088 microprocessor (single chip) used in first IBM personal computerIBM PC released in 19814.77 MHz clock16 bit integers, with an 8-bit data bustransfers took two steps (a byte at a time)1 Mb of physical memory address limitation8-bit device-controlling chips29,000 transistors3-micron technologyspeed was 0.33 MIPSlater version had 8 MHz clockspeed was 0.75 MIPS.Pentium 4 chip has 42 million transistorselectrical paths nowas small as .13 micron
21 These 2 computers were functionally equivalent. Moore’s Law exampleDEC PDP-11,mid 1970’sDECLSI-11,Early 1980’sThese 2 computers were functionally equivalent.
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