3 ABACUS4th Century B.C.The abacus, a simple counting aid, invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C.This device allows users to make computations using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack.
4 BLAISE PASCALIn 1642, the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented a calculating device that would come to be called the "Adding Machine".
5 Pascal's mechanical Adding Machine automated the process of calculation. Although slow by modern standards, this machine did provide a fair degree of accuracy and speed.Barren Gotterfried Wilhelm invented the first machine for multiplication
6 Charles BabbageInvented Difference Engine for producing reliable tables to support mathematical and statistical dataThen he produced a new idea of an Analytical Engine for faster processing of arithmetic operationsAnalytical Engine was capable of performing 60 additions per minuteBut he was unable to produce working model of this engine
7 Some Well Known Early Computers The Mark I Computer ( )Designed by Howard A. Aiken, Professor of Harvard University in collaboration with IBM CorporationAutomatic Sequence Controlled calculatorFirst fully automatic machineElectromechanical device (both electrical & mechanical)Complex in design and huge in sizeUsed over 3000 electrical switches, approximately 50 feet long and 8 feet highPerformed 5 basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and table reference
8 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939-42) Designed by Dr. John Atanasoff and his assistant Clifford BerryAn electronic machine to solve mathematical equationsUsed 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storageThe ENIAC ( )Electronic Numerical Integrator and CalculatorDesigned by a team of people at Moore School of Engineering, U.S.ATeam led by Professors J. Presper Eckert & John MauchlyFirst electronic computerDeveloped because of military needs to solve ballistic related problemsUsed vacuum tubesCould add and multiply two numbers in 200 and 2000 microsec respectivelyPrograms were wired on board and hence couldn’t be changed
9 The EDVAC ( )Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic ComputerDesigned by Von NeumannUsed concept of stored program in the computer memory so that they can be changed as and when requiredVon Neumann also introduced concept of storing both instructions in binary formEDSAC ( )Electronic Delay Storage Automatic CalculatorDesigned by group of scientists lead by Professor Maurice WilkesDesigned at Cambridge University Mathematical LaboratoryExecuted its first program in May 1949Addition & multiplication took 1500 & 4000 microseconds respectively
10 The UNIVAC I (1951) Universal Automatic Computer First Digital ComputerFirst UNIVAC machine was installed in Census Bureau and was continuously used for 10 yearsFirst business use in 1954 by General Electric Corporation
11 Computer Generations First Generation (1942-1955) Second Generation ( )Third Generation ( )Fourth Generation ( )Fifth Generation (1989-Present)
12 First Generation Used thousand of vacuum tubes They were fastest calculating devices.Too large in sizeData & instructions were fed with the help of punched cardsInstructions were written in machine or assembly level languageLarge amount of heat due to thousands of vacuum tubes, so air conditioning was requiredHigh power consumption
13 Frequent hardware failure due to burn out of tubes Costly to manufacture and maintain these computersThe first computer prototype using vacuum tubes was ENIAC
14 Second Generation Use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes Invented by John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter BrattainInvented at Bell Laboratories, USA in 1947Easier to use and handleNo burning out, but hardware failures were still thereAlmost ten times faster than tubesConsumed almost one-tenth the power consumed by tubes
15 Much smaller in sizeLess expensive to produce but still costlierProduce less heat as compared to tubes but air conditioning was requiredMagnetic disk and magnetic tapes were used as memoryHigh level programming languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL were usedEasier to program these computersBatch operating system was used
16 Third GenerationIn 1958, Jack St. Clair Cilby & Robert Noyce invented integrated circuitsIC’s consist of several electric components like transistors, resistors and capacitors embedded on a single chip of siliconSSI, MSI technologyMore powerful & faster than second generation computers (could perform 1million instructions/sec)Smaller in size and hence require small space for installationRequire less power and produce less heat but still need proper air conditioning
17 More reliable and very less prone to hardware failure Faster and large memory as compared to second generation computersWere less costlier and easy to manufacture and maintainTime sharing operating system allowed use of single computer by multiple users
18 Fourth Generation Use of IC’s with VLSI technology Microprocessors and semiconductor memoryLarger memory because of larger hard disks and floppy disks and magnetic tapes as portable storage mediaVery less heat hence no air conditioning was required instead fans were usedGraphical User Interface operating systems were usedVery easy to manufacture & maintain them and cost very lessVery fast as compared to computers in early generations
19 Fifth Generation IC’s based on ULSI technology Portable PC’s (notebook computers) were much smaller and handy than fourth generation computersMuch faster and powerful than computers in earlier generationsConsume very less powerHot plug technologyLess costlier and easy to manufacture and maintainNewer and more powerful applications make computers more easy to use in every field
20 Thanks for downloading…… Do Comment plz……. By : - Jaspreet Rekhi
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.