2 Some Definitions For You to Know… Rhetoric – the art of using words impressively, especially in public speakingPersuasion – to cause a person to believe or do something by REASONING with themPropaganda – the spreading of ideas or information with the purpose of persuading or convincing (propaganda often has a negative connotation, but this is not always true!)
3 RhetoricThe Art of using words impressively, especially when it comes to public speakingEx. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation - delivered 8 December 1941What famous quote came from this speech?
4 Rhetoric con’t…Pearl Harbor speech - FDR “Yesterday, December 7th, a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
5 PersuasionTo cause a person to believe or do something by reasoning with him or her“ Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him; The evil that men do lives after them, The good is oft interred with their bones, So let it be with Caesar ... The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious…”
6 Parts to Persuasion…A fact is a statement that can be verified as correct or incorrectAn opinion is a personal feeling or judgment about somethingOften times, persuasion is based on personal feelings but then supported with facts.
7 Fact or Opinion? You Tell Me… Remember, facts are statements that can be verified as CORRECT… or INCORRECT. Opinions are personal feelings or judgments about something.Everyone loves chocolate.New York is the largest city in the United States.I believe that the beach is the best place to vacation.I think the main character in the movie is hilarious.April is one of the Spring months.You are the best dancer in the whole school.Brian Cushing was just voted NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year.Dogs are superior to cats.
8 Tricky, tricky…There are some words that can fool you into thinking that the statement is a fact.bestEveryoneWorstbelievebetterthinkSeemsALL
9 Twilight is the best movie ever! Fact or Opinion?Twilight is the best movie ever!
10 Fact or Opinion?Robert Pattinson plays Edward Cullen and Kristen Stewart plays Bella Swan in Twilight.
11 PropagandaThe spreading of ideas or information with the purpose of persuading or convincingCan propaganda be both positive and/or negative?Give an example.
12 Successful Arguments must do 3 (Three!!!) things: 1. Have or develop several solid, LOGICALLY BASED reasons.logically meaning that they must be reasons that can be supported with evidence (You knew that already!)2. TARGET your reasons for the SPECIFIC AUDIENCE you are trying to convincemeaning that you must know who you are trying to persuade, otherwise you have a moot point3. Use PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES appropriately and effectivelyWhat are these magical persuasive techniques, you ask?
13 The 3 Persuasive Appeals LOGOS (logic) -- An appeal to LOGIC or RATIONAL REASONINGIf you can explain real-life cause and effect and if/then situations, and make reasonable comparisons using FACTS and FIGURES that can be VERIFIED, then you are using LOGOS.Ex. “Dad, you should let me drive to school today because I have to go straight from school to a doctor’s appointment at 3:00 and I will be late to my appointment if I walk to school rather than drive.”
14 ETHOS… ETHOS (ethics/morals) An appeal to what is MORALLY or ETHICALLY right, or to see the speaker as a trustworthy or qualified person.If you can explain how your argument is MORALLY right and IMPORTANT for the good of society, or if you can convince your audience to believe you because of the kind of person you are, you are using ETHOS.Ex. “Dad, you know I have always been a responsible son and I never taken advantage of the privilege to drive and I know that you would not want me to miss my doctor’s appointment, as the school requires I have a physical before playing football; therefore you should let me drive to school so that I may fulfill my obligation.”
15 PATHOS PATHOS (emotion): An appeal to EMOTIONS or FEELINGS including FEAR, HUMOR, ROMANCE, COMPASSION, etc…If you can relate/incorporate your emotions into your argument without manipulating the emotions of others, you are using PATHOS.Ex. “Dad, I feel really sick today… and you I love school and would never want to miss any of my classes… so you should let me drive to school today so I can go to the doctor right after school before this gets any worse; and in my weakened condition it would be hard to walk all the way there.”
17 FALLACY… Beware! A false argument or error in reasoning Fallacies are meant to manipulate and confuse the audience. If you expose these methods, they do not contain valid reasoning.What methods of persuasion have you seen today that often contain fallacies?
18 Types of FallaciesBandwagon – Tries to get everyone to do or think the same as the crowd… “everyone’s doing it…”“Come join your friends at Chili’s, where the fun is”Testimonial – When someone is trying to tell you THEIR experience about an issue and how they handled itHave you ever had trouble losing weight? So did I, until I took SlimQuick! Now I’m 30 pounds lighter and I have my life back”
19 Types of FallaciesCelebrity Endorsement - a testimonial by someone famous. “If it’s good enough for a movie star, it must be good enough for me.”I’m not a doctor, but I play one on TV, and I can tell you that Advil is the only thing that works on headache pain all day.Unproved Generalization– A statement that no one is likely to prove, disprove, or even challenge, and there are likely not any facts to back it up. Extreme words are often used to make the statement sound more valid (always, never, all, none, etc.)“Four out of five athletes prefer the taste of Gatorade to Powerade”
20 Fallacies con’t.5. Repetition – A method of brainwashing where a message is excessively repeated. This can be within one argument, or an excessive repetition of the entire argument or just certain key words.“Can you hear me now? Good. Can you hear me now? Good.”6. Faulty Cause and Effect – When a reason is given for the desire, but the reason has nothing to do with the situations.The eldest child should always get first choice7. Propaganda – An appeal to a particular emotion. Often propaganda appeals to several emotions at once.Humor – Aflac Duck CommercialFear – Anti-Smoking CampaignsRomance/Love/Sex(iness) – Herbal Essences commercialsNurturing – Johnson and Johnson baby products
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