Presentation on theme: "Challenges of Drinking Water Purification & Supply in Disaster Affected Areas Need for Voluntary Services by Er. Subhash P. Andey Scientist NEERI, Nagpur."— Presentation transcript:
Challenges of Drinking Water Purification & Supply in Disaster Affected Areas Need for Voluntary Services by Er. Subhash P. Andey Scientist NEERI, Nagpur Challenges of Drinking Water Purification & Supply in Disaster Affected Areas Need for Voluntary Services by Er. Subhash P. Andey Scientist NEERI, Nagpur
Water Availability in India Rain 4000 BCM Total Utilizable Water BCM Surface Water 690 BCM Ground Water 432 BCM 4% of Global Water resource s 14 Major River Basins
Per Capita Water Availability
Water Management Practices Grey water recycling Rain water Harvesting Groundwater Recharge Efficient Irrigation Practices Construction of check dams
Natural Disasters These disasters include Cyclones, Floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, Drought, and Landslides etc Out of total deaths by Floods in the world, (1/5) are from India. The main causes of floods are excessive rains in river catchments, poor natural drainage, Change of river course, Landslide restricting river flow, cyclone and very intense rainfall Providing clean water is usually one of the highest priorities in the event of an emergency
Impacts of Natural Disasters on Water Supply Draught and earth quake –Shortage of water –Bacterial Contamination of water Cyclones and floods –Contamination of water sources Turbidity and suspended solids Organic matter due to plan decay, animal carcasses Bacterial contamination
Water Supply Management During Draught Demand assessment How much water is needed? Location and protection of water sources Where are the nearest/most convenient sources of water and How can they be protected? Water treatment What is the level of water treatment required for use/consumption? What methods are available for treatment Water distribution Where will people collect water from? How will the water be collected? How will it be stored for domestic use?
Water Supply Management During Flood Flood waters can move animal carcasses closer to intakes which increases the chance of organic and bacteria contaminating the drinking water supply. The spread of bacteria also occurs when rising levels of water cause sewage to back up into lower lying areas such as home interiors and public throughways through toilets and manholes. The turbidity (cloudiness) of water can increase during flooding as can pollution from other contaminants.
Water Supply Management During Flood Phased action plan Immediate measures (to sustain life) Intermediate measures (from about 2 to 6 weeks after the disaster, or the arrival of refugees in a camp) Long-term solutions (from about 6 weeks). Factors affecting the duration of action phases Accessibility of the disaster area or refugee camp for local, national, and international assistance; The nature of the disaster Availability of water, materials, and skilled labour
Technologies for Water Supply During Emergency
Simple to fabricate Easy to operate Minimum maintenance Light weight Ease in transportation and installation Low cost NEERI-ZAR Portable Instant Water Filter
NEERI-ZAR : Portable Instant Water Filter Water purification system suitable for potable water supply particularly under emergency situation with a wide range of flood water quality A typical unit, with two 100 L vessels, can serve about persons, when operated for 10 hours a day, on the basis of 6-10 litres per capita/day for drinking and cooking purposes Removes turbidity and suspended matter as well as the micro-organisms. No change in the dissolved mineral concentrations in raw and filtered water Can be used to treat the pond/lake water for the villages or small colony situated at the isolated places Operating cost Rs. 3 per 100 L
NEERI-ZAR : Performance NEERI-Zar produces filtered water with turbidity in the range of 1.1 to 3.8 NTU and 90 – 99% reduction in bacterial load from the raw water with the turbidity in the range NTU and Total coliform and E.coli counts in the range 6800–78300 CFU/100ml and CFU/100 ml respectively. Zooplankton species like cyclops, nauplius, daphnia, branchionus are also removed during filtration. The operation of the unit includes disinfection by chemical agent.
Installed 100 units in the flood affected remote areas of Barmer District in October 2006
Installed 400 units in the Aila Cyclone affected villages of Sundarban district (West Bengal) in 2009 to treat pond water
IIT Kharagpur Nina Saxena Excellence in Technology Award to Er. Subhash Andey, Er. Prakash Kelkar and Dr. Madan Nanoti for NEERI-ZAR : Instant Portable Water Filter
CSIR-NEERI bags 2 Prestigious International Project Innovation Awards (PIA) – Development instituted by International Water Association (IWA) Winner Honour Winner NEERI-ZAR Multi Pollutant Water Treatment Unit Solar Energy Based Electrolytic Defluoridation Plant PIA entries were from various countries such as Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Lebanon, Brazil, Republic of Korea (South Korea), China, Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya, Philippines, Jordan besides India The awards were presented in the Ceremony held during the 2 nd IWA Development Congress and Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 23 rd November, 2011
Pot Chlorinator for Disinfection of Dug Well and Storage Tanks Waters Single Pot system Single Pot system Suitable for Community dug wells and storage tanks of 9000 to L capacity Earthen pot of 7 to 8 L capacity is used in the system Dry mixture of 1.5 kg bleaching power (BP) and 3 kg coarse sand is placed in the pot over the pea gravel Addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (5% of BP) helps in prolonging the chlorination period Pot is lowered in the well/tank and kept 0.9 to 1.2 m below water level with the help of rope Chlorine residual : 0.2 to 1.0 mg/L for 15 to 20 days One pot is enough for daily drawl of 900 to 1300 L (40-50 people per day) With higher drawl rates two pots are necessary per well
Pot Chlorinator for Disinfection of Dug Well and Storage Tanks Waters Double Pot system Suitable for household dug wells of 4000 L or less capacity having withdrawal rate of 360 to 450 L of water per day Unit consist of two cylindrical pots, one inside the other Moist mixture of 1 kg bleaching power (BP) and 2 kg of sand is kept in the inner pot with 0.6 cm diameter hole above the level of sand and BP mixture Pot is lowered in the well and kept 0.9 to 1.2 m below water level with the help of rope Chlorine residual : 0.15 to 0.5 mg/L for 15 to 20 days
Technologies for Safe Water Supply
Electrolytic Defluoridation Technique Removal of fluoride by active species of hydroxide of aluminium produced by passing DC power through aluminium electrode Process is effective to remove excess fluoride and also bring down the bacterial load of the raw water Simple to fabricate, easy to operate with minimum maintenance Suitable for treatment of raw water with fluoride concentration upto 10 mg/L Produces potable water with palatable taste as against the other available chemical treatment methods Quantity of sludge produced is much less (60-70%) than conventional treatment methods Simultaneous reduction in bacterial contamination in treated water Treatment cost upto Rs. 20 per 1000 L
Electrolytic Defluoridation Plants working in the field Dongargaon, Chandrapur Dist. (Maharashtra) Installation year 2002 Working on Solar power Capacity lit / Batch Usaravara village, Durg district (Chhattisgarh) and Sargapur village Seoni Dist.(M.P.) Installation year 2010 Working on Solar power Capacity lit / Batch UNICEF provided funds for installation of 16 plants in Madhya Pradesh
DST-Lockheed Martin India Innovation Growth Award Solar Energy Based Electrolytic Defluoridation Plant
NEERI-ZAR : Domestic Iron Removal Unit Oxidation of iron by KMnO 4 and removal of precipitated iron by sand filtration The dose of KMnO 4 required is about 50% of the iron concentration in the water Suitable for remote places such as reserve forest, police /military camps 20 plants are installed in Tadoba Tiger Reserve Forest, Maharashtra for supply of water to forest guards
NEERI-ZAR : Domestic Fluoride Removal Unit Process involves formation of insoluble fluoride complex with salts of calcium and phosphorous and filtration through sand filter Reduces the fluoride concentration in water to <1 mg/L Suitable for treating the water upto fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L Taste of the treated water is palatable Installed 60 demonstration units at Sakhara village in Maharashtra Cost of treatment Rs per liter
NEERI-ZAR : Domestic Arsenic Removal Unit Process involves formation of insoluble arsenic complex with Chemical A and B and filtration through sand filter Reduces the arsenic concentration in water below 0.01 mg/L Suitable for treating the water upto arsenic concentration of 100 to 3000 ppb Taste of the treated water is palatable Installed 5 demonstration units at C.G.
Hand Pump Attachable Iron Removal Plant Continuous operation system 1 cu m/hour hydraulic loading 40 Ipcd and 10 hours daily operation assumption 250 population Based on contact bed aeration system in aeration chamber Cylindrical body Collection / flocculation chamber Sedimentation chamber Filter chamber Plant Dimensions Diameter, cm : 135 Height, cm : plants were installed at Assam during water Mission in 1992 Construction cost about Rs. 50,000 Principle: Aeration (Gas transfer) Oxidation Precipitation Sedimentation Filtration