4Activity 40 AnalysisWhich is more dilute, Cup 1 or Cup 2? How do you know this?Cup 2The color in cup 2 is lighterWe know we mixed one part of the original solution to nine parts of waterIf Cup 1 has a concentration of one part in 10, and Cup 2 has 1/10 the concentration Cup 1, what is the concentration in Cup 2?One part per 100
5Which cup has a concentration of one part of food coloring per one million parts of solution? What is the number of the cup in which the solution first appeared colorless? What is the concentration of the solution in this cup? Hint: Express the answer for concentration as one part per ___.Usually it’s Cup 5, 6, or 7 (varies with techniques and ability to see colorCup 5 is 1 part per 100,000Cup 6 is 1 part per 1,000,000 or 1ppm
6Do you think there is any food coloring in Cup 8, even though it appears colorless? Explain. Was there a direct observation (evidence) to support your conclusion)You might infer that there must be some food coloring present since it was in the original solution that became colorless with dilutionAn inference is a conclusion that is not based on direct observationsLook at the tray with evaporated solutionsYou might conclude that particles are present in Cups 8 and 9, but there are not enough to observe directly
7Imagine that the food coloring is a toxic substance Imagine that the food coloring is a toxic substance. Do you think that diluting the substance with a lot of water will make it safe?A more dilute solution may not be harmfulIt will not be completely gone and may still cause problemsIn Activity 34, “Water Pollution”, you read some substances, such as bacterial contaminants, are harmful in very small amounts
8The Willow Grove Story: Activity 41Willow Grove’s well water, Fenton River and Willow Lake were tested to make sure they met federal water-quality standards.The results showed Willow Lake water was turbid (cloudy due to presence of impurities), Fenton River water was slightly acidic, and the well water contained nitrates.Test for iron used potassium thiocyanate and hydrochloric acid---a reddish orange color indicated the presence of iron (test can detect 500 ppm or higher)Test for nitrates used hydrochloric acid and a powdered nitrate indicator---purple = nitratesTest for copper using ammonia---light blue = copper levels over 2 ppm
9Results indicated:Willow Grove needs to treat the groundwater to remove nitrates---50% of the residents drink well waterThe town should figure out what is causing the acid in the river to prevent levels from risingThe town should figure out what is making the lake turbid, but it is still safe since it is treated by the water district
10Activity 42 Water Purification Two treatment methods used by most water districts to remove contaminants before piping water to homes are coagulation and filtration.Coagulation involves using chemicals to attract contaminants into large clumps. The clumps settle to the bottom of the water tank. Filtration traps and separates solid contaminants from the water by making the water flow through filters.Alum was added to dirty water to coagulateFiltration tubes were filled with gravel, sand, and charcoal
12Title: Precipitating Specific Contaminants Activity 45Title: Precipitating SpecificContaminants
13Read C-78Problem: How can you use a chemical reaction to remove a contaminant from a solution?Hypothesis/Initial Thoughts:
14Chemical Reaction…… What terms or ideas relate to this Color change (of a solution)Energy change—temperature change, light, or generation of electricityOdor changeDisappearance of an original substance (reactant consumption)Formation of bubbles (gaseous product)Formation of a precipitate (solid product)Change in the results of a chemical test (such as a pH change detected with an indicator)
15NOT EVIDENCEDissolving is of a chemical change. It is a physical changeThe solute can be reclaimed by a physical means of separation: evaporation of the solventIn this activity, dissolved copper chloride will represent a wastewater contaminantDissolved sodium carbonate is the solution added to enable the contaminant to be precipitated out and removedCuCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) CuCO3 (s) + NaCl (aq)Copper chloride + sodium carbonate copper carbonate + sodium chlorideThis is called precipitation which is different than precipitation that forms when water vapor condenses in clouds and falls to the earth
16Data/Observation: Table: Precipitation Reaction Make comparisons in your descriptions like, “lighter than or less than test 1”One pair do tests 1 and 2Make observations before and after you mix themOne pair do tests 3 and 4
19Decide which pair will do tests 1 and 2 and which will do tests 3 and 4 Follow the instructions on your table to determine the number of drops of water and sodium carbonate you add to Cups B and CABCDETest 1 or 3Test 2 or 4
20Write down what you see before you stir the mixture and after you stir the mixture. Be descriptive! Examples: blue, bluish-green, fluffy solid, cloudy, thick, darker blue than…, clear, pasty, fizzing, chunks, precipitate
21Fold two filter papers, moisten them, and place them into two filter funnel openings.
22Place the filter funnels onto your SEPUP tray so that the openings are over Cups D and E BCDE
23Using the dropper, transfer as much as you can of the material from Cup B to the filter in Cup D. Rinse the dropper and transfer Cup C material to E.ABCDE
24Once the mixtures have filtered, observe the appearance and quality of the filter paper. Then put the filters in a paper towel and put them in the trash. Observe the appearance and quantity of the filtrate. Finish filling in the data table on your student sheet.
25How could you test the filtrate to see if there is any copper chloride in it? Add 1 one drop of sodium carbonate and observe any change. Continue to add a drop at a time pausing for observation until you reach 10.
26Clean-upEveryone wash hands with soap and water.